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Solute carrier family 7

XCT, cystine/glutamate transporter
This gene encodes a member of a heteromeric, sodium-independent, anionic amino acid transport system that is highly specific for cysteine and glutamate. In this system, designated Xc(-), the anionic form of cysteine is transported in exchange for glutamate. This protein has been identified as the predominant mediator of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion and entry permissiveness into cells. Also, increased expression of this gene in primary gliomas (compared to normal brain tissue) was associated with increased glutamate secretion via the XCT channels, resulting in neuronal cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: ACID, V1a, CAN, Ros, Nrf2
Papers on XCT
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D induces the glutamate transporter SLC1A1 and alters glutamate handling in non-transformed mammary cells.
Welsh et al., Albany, United States. In Mol Cell Endocrinol, Feb 2016
Under the same conditions, the expression of two other glutamate transporters - SLC1A6 (EAAT4) and SLC1A2 (EAAT2 or GLT-1) - is enhanced by 1,25D while that of SLC1A3 (EAAT1 or GLAST) and SLC7A11 (xCT) is decreased.
Lipocalin 2 attenuates iron-related oxidative stress and prolongs the survival of ovarian clear cell carcinoma cells by up-regulating the CD44 variant.
Shiozawa et al., Matsumoto, Japan. In Free Radic Res, Feb 2016
Furthermore, the expression of xCT, a cystine transporter protein, and CD44 variant 8-10 (CD44v), a stem cell marker, was up-regulated by LCN2.
Immunotargeting of Antigen xCT Attenuates Stem-like Cell Behavior and Metastatic Progression in Breast Cancer.
Cavallo et al., Torino, Italy. In Cancer Res, Feb 2016
A comparison of the transcriptional profiles of murine Her2(+) breast tumor TUBO cells and their derived CSC-enriched tumorspheres has identified xCT, the functional subunit of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc (-), as a surface protein that is upregulated specifically in tumorspheres.
Early changes in system [Formula: see text] and glutathione in the retina of diabetic rats.
Calaza et al., Niterói, Brazil. In Exp Eye Res, Jan 2016
System [Formula: see text] is a glutamate/cystine exchanger, formed by a catalytic subunit called xCT and a regulatory subunit 4F2hc, whose activity is crucial to the synthesis of glutathione, which is a key antioxidant molecule for cells.
Bach1 differentially regulates distinct Nrf2-dependent genes in human venous and coronary artery endothelial cells adapted to physiological oxygen levels.
Mann et al., London, United Kingdom. In Free Radic Biol Med, Jan 2016
Induction of GSH-related genes xCT and GCLM were oxygen and Bach1-insensitive during long-term culture under 5% O2, providing the first evidence that genes related to GSH synthesis mediate protection afforded by Nrf2-Keap1 defense pathway in cells adapted to physiological O2 levels encountered in vivo.
Main path and byways: non-vesicular glutamate release by system xc (-) as an important modifier of glutamatergic neurotransmission.
Lewerenz et al., Brussels, Belgium. In J Neurochem, Dec 2015
Since the transcription of xCT, the specific subunit of system xc (-) , is enhanced by the presence of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines, system xc (-) could be involved in toxic extracellular glutamate release in neurological disorders that are associated with increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.
Interleukin 1β regulation of the system xc- substrate-specific subunit, xCT, in primary mouse astrocytes involves the RNA-binding protein HuR.
Hewett et al., Syracuse, United States. In J Biol Chem, Dec 2015
We recently determined that the cytokine, IL-1β, increases the activity of system xc (-) in CNS astrocytes secondary to an upregulation of its substrate-specific light chain, xCT, and that this occurs, in part, at the level of transcription.
Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol - studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells.
Vogel et al., In J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol, Dec 2015
In parallel, DMH-CBD upregulated the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and glutathione homeostasis such as Trb3, Slc7a11/xCT, Hmox1, Atf4, Chop, and p8 in both stimulated and unstimulated microglial cells.
[Xenogeneic cell therapeutics: Treatment of type 1 diabetes using porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells].
Tönjes et al., Langen, Germany. In Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz, Nov 2015
In view of the existing shortage of human donor organs and tissues, xenogeneic cell therapeutics (xCT) offer an alternative for adequate treatment.
Application of Glutathione as Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Aging Drugs.
Fujii et al., Yamagata, Japan. In Curr Drug Metab, 2014
The iron chelator deferoxamine nearly abolishes ferroptosis induced by inhibiting GSH synthesis or cystine uptake by the xCT transporter.
Iron and thiols as two major players in carcinogenesis: friends or foes?
Toyokuni, Nagoya, Japan. In Front Pharmacol, 2013
It is now recognized that the cystine/glutamate transporter (antiporter) is intimately associated with ferroptosis, an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic form of cell death, observed in cancer cells, and also with cancer stem cells; the former with transporter blockage but the latter with its stabilization.
Redox status in mammalian cells and stem cells during culture in vitro: critical roles of Nrf2 and cystine transporter activity in the maintenance of redox balance.
Mann et al., Tsukuba, Japan. In Redox Biol, 2013
Additionally, many cells have the ability to activate the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, a master regulator of cellular defenses against oxidative stress, and to upregulate xCT, the subunit of the [Formula: see text] transport system leading to increases in cellular GSH.
Impaired long-term potentiation and long-term memory deficits in xCT-deficient sut mice.
Li et al., Hangzhou, China. In Biosci Rep, 2012
xCT plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal long-term plasticity.
Mutation of ATF4 mediates resistance of neuronal cell lines against oxidative stress by inducing xCT expression.
Maher et al., Ulm, Germany. In Cell Death Differ, 2012
Data indicate that ATF4 has a central role in regulating xCT expression and resistance against oxidative stress.
Hypoxic preconditioning involves system Xc- regulation in mouse neural stem cells.
Sontheimer et al., Birmingham, United States. In Stem Cell Res, 2012
These data provide the first evidence of hypoxic regulation of the cystine glutamate exchanger system Xc-.
Non-cell autonomous influence of the astrocyte system xc- on hypoglycaemic neuronal cell death.
Hewett et al., Farmington, United States. In Asn Neuro, 2011
under the conditions of glucose deprivation, our studies demonstrate that astrocytes, via system xc-, have a direct, non-cell autonomous effect on cortical neuron survival.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 and transforming growth factor-β stimulate cystine/glutamate exchange activity in dental pulp cells.
Lobner et al., Milwaukee, United States. In J Endod, 2011
Both IGF-1 and TGF-beta stimulated system xc-mediated cystine uptake in dental pulp cells.
CD44 variant regulates redox status in cancer cells by stabilizing the xCT subunit of system xc(-) and thereby promotes tumor growth.
Saya et al., Tokyo, Japan. In Cancer Cell, 2011
Data show that ablation of CD44 induced loss of xCT from the cell surface and suppressed tumor growth in a mouse model of gastric cancer.
Small interfering RNA-mediated xCT silencing in gliomas inhibits neurodegeneration and alleviates brain edema.
Eyüpoglu et al., Zürich, Switzerland. In Nat Med, 2008
Small interfering RNA-mediated xCT silencing in gliomas inhibits neurodegeneration and alleviates brain edema.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion-entry receptor: cystine transporter xCT.
Berger et al., Bethesda, United States. In Science, 2006
xCT was identified as the receptor mediating KSHV cell fusion; KSHV target cell permissiveness correlated closely with endogenous expression of xCT messenger RNA and protein in diverse cell types
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