Minireview: recent developments in the regulation of glucose transporter-4 traffic: new signals, locations, and partners.
Toronto, Canada. In Endocrinology, 2005
At the cell periphery, GLUT4-containing vesicles tether, dock, and fuse with the PM assisted by the exocyst complex followed by engagement of a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex [with vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)2 as the vesicular (v)-SNARE and soluble NSF-attachment protein (SNAP)23 and syntaxin4 as target (t)-SNAREs] regulated by the accessory proteins Munc18c, Synip and Tomosyn.
Synip: a novel insulin-regulated syntaxin 4-binding protein mediating GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes.
Ann Arbor, United States. In Mol Cell, 1999
Insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation require regulated interactions between the v-SNARE, VAMP2, and the t-SNARE, syntaxin 4. We have isolated a novel syntaxin 4-binding protein, Synip, which specifically interacts with syntaxin 4. Insulin induces a dissociation of the Synip:syntaxin 4 complex due to an apparent decrease in the binding affinity of Synip for syntaxin 4. In contrast, the carboxyterminal domain of Synip does not dissociate from syntaxin 4 in response to insulin stimulation but inhibits glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation.