60 YEARS OF POMC: POMC: an evolutionary perspective.
Spain. In J Mol Endocrinol, Jan 2016
This gene family diversified during early tetraploidizations of the vertebrate genome to generate four different precursors: proenkephalin (PENK), prodinorphyn (PDYN) and nociceptin/proorphanin (PNOC) as well as POMC, although both PNOC and POMC seem to have arisen due to a local duplication event.
Altered Gene Expression Profile of the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus of Male Mice Suggests Profound Developmental Changes in Peptidergic Signaling.
Budapest, Hungary. In Neuroendocrinology, Sep 2015
Adult animals showed increased mRNA levels encoding cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, galanin-like peptide, dynorphin, kisspeptin, proopiomelanocortin, proenkephalin and galanin and reduced expression of mRNAs for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, substance P, agouti-related protein, neurotensin and growth hormone-releasing hormone.
Pharmacology and signaling of MAS-related G protein-coupled receptors.
München, Germany. In Pharmacol Rev, 2014
However, several distinct peptides and amino acids are discussed as potential ligands, including β-alanine, angiotensin-(1-7), alamandine, GABA, cortistatin-14, and cleavage products of proenkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, prodynorphin, or proneuropeptide-FF-A.
Gene therapy for the treatment of chronic peripheral nervous system pain.
Pittsburgh, United States. In Neurobiol Dis, 2012
This promise has been recently supported by a Phase-I human trial in which a replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector was used to deliver the human pre-proenkephalin (hPPE) gene, encoding the natural opioid peptides met- and leu-enkephalin (ENK), to cancer patients with intractable pain resulting from bone metastases (Fink et al., 2011).
Reward processing by the opioid system in the brain.
Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France. In Physiol Rev, 2009
The opioid system consists of three receptors, mu, delta, and kappa, which are activated by endogenous opioid peptides processed from three protein precursors, proopiomelanocortin, proenkephalin, and prodynorphin.
Novel C-terminally amidated opioid peptide in human phaeochromocytoma tumour.
In Nature, 1983
The complete amino acid sequence of adrenorphin was determined by microsequencing and corresponds to the sequence of the first eight amino acids of peptide E which is derived from proenkephalin A. Adrenorphin has also been identified chromatographically in normal human and bovine adrenal medulla.