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Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase

PAL, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, PHM, PHR1
This gene encodes a multifunctional protein. It has two enzymatically active domains with catalytic activities - peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL). These catalytic domains work sequentially to catalyze neuroendocrine peptides to active alpha-amidated products. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene but some of their full length sequences are not yet known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: ACID, CAN, HAD, V1a, STEP
Papers using PAL antibodies
Re-expression of the α2β1 integrin abrogates the malignant phenotype of breast carcinoma cells
Bissell M.J. et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1994
... 14, respectively (Transduction Laboratories, Lexington, NY); for immunostaining of type IV collagen we used clone PHM-12 (Biogenex, San Ramon, CA); for ...
Papers on PAL
Enhancing phytochemical levels, enzymatic and antioxidant activity of spinach leaves by chitosan treatment and an insight into the metabolic pathway using DART-MS technique.
Singh, Pilani, India. In Food Chem, Jun 2016
When applied at a concentration of 0.01mg/ml as a foliar spray, chitosan was able to cause an increase in the enzymatic (peroxidase, catalase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL)) and non enzymatic (total phenolics, flavonoids and proteins) defensive metabolites, as well as, in the total antioxidant activity of the spinach leaves.
Effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB on rats tested with the paired associates learning task in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers.
Howland et al., Saskatoon, Canada. In Behav Brain Res, Jan 2016
We used acute CDPPB (1-30mg/kg) treatment to examine the effects of mGluR5 PAM in the touchscreen paired associates learning (PAL) task using well-trained rats with and without co-administration of acute MK-801 (0.15mg/kg).
60 YEARS OF POMC: From POMC and αMSH to PAM, molecular oxygen, copper and vitamin C.
Eipper et al., Farmington, United States. In J Mol Endocrinol, Jan 2016
Purification and cloning led to the discovery that the amidation of peptidylglycine substrates proceeds in two steps: peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) catalyzes the copper and ascorbate-dependent α-hydroxylation of the peptidylglycine substrate; peptidyl-α-hydroxyglycine α-amidating lyase (PAL) cleaves the N-C bond, producing amidated product plus glyoxylate.
Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of cinnamaldehyde.
Jeong et al., Taejŏn, South Korea. In Microb Cell Fact, Dec 2015
In E. coli, cinnamaldehyde can be synthesized from intracellular L-phenylalanine, which requires the activities of three enzymes: phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR).
[Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].
Qian et al., In Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Aug 2015
The POD, PPO and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) expression levels were positively correlated with the browning rate at P < 0.05 or P < 0.01.
Developing mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes relevant to reactive intermediates of biological oxidation reactions.
Itoh, Suita, Japan. In Acc Chem Res, Aug 2015
Recent attention has been focused on the reactive intermediates generated at the mononuclear copper active sites of copper monooxygenases such as dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM), tyramine β-monooxygenase (TβM), peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM), and polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMO).
[Roles of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in low temperature tolerance in cucumber seedlings].
Zhang et al., In Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, Jul 2015
To reveal the roles of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in low temperature tolerance in cucumber seedlings, a specific PAL inhibitor (AOPP) was sprayed to the seedlings, and then the stress tolerance was determined.
The Y-chromosome point mutation rate in humans.
Stefánsson et al., Reykjavík, Iceland. In Nat Genet, May 2015
We observed a lower rate (P = 0.04) of 7.37 × 10(-10) PPPY for 6.1 Mb of sequence from palindromes (PAL), which was not statistically different from the rate of 7.2 × 10(-10) PPPY for paternally transmitted autosomes.
Multifaceted regulations of gateway enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids.
Liu et al., United States. In Mol Plant, 2015
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first committed enzyme in the pathway; it diverts the central flux of carbon from the primary metabolism to the synthesis of myriad phenolics.
Integration of P, S, Fe, and Zn nutrition signals in Arabidopsis thaliana: potential involvement of PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1 (PHR1).
Dubos et al., Montpellier, France. In Front Plant Sci, 2014
Phosphate and sulfate are essential macro-elements for plant growth and development, and deficiencies in these mineral elements alter many metabolic functions.
Nutrient- and other stress-responsive microRNAs in plants: Role for thiol-based redox signaling.
Sunkar et al., Stillwater, United States. In Plant Signal Behav, 2014
Although the transcription factors (PHR1, SLIM1 and SPB7) that regulate these nutrient-deprivation inducible miRNAs have been identified but the upstream biochemical pathway that activates them is relatively unknown.
Photoaffinity labeling in target- and binding-site identification.
Collins et al., London, United Kingdom. In Future Med Chem, 2014
Photoaffinity labeling (PAL) using a chemical probe to covalently bind its target in response to activation by light has become a frequently used tool in drug discovery for identifying new drug targets and molecular interactions, and for probing the location and structure of binding sites.
Wallerian degeneration: an emerging axon death pathway linking injury and disease.
Coleman et al., Nottingham, United Kingdom. In Nat Rev Neurosci, 2014
Rapid Wallerian degeneration requires the pro-degenerative molecules SARM1 and PHR1.
The E3 ubiquitin ligase protein associated with Myc (Pam) regulates mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in vivo through N- and C-terminal domains.
Ramesh et al., Boston, United States. In J Biol Chem, 2012
The ubiquitin ligase complex containing Pam-Fbxo45 likely targets additional synaptic and axonal proteins, which may explain the overlapping neurodevelopmental defects observed in Phr1 and Fbxo45 deficiency.
A copper-methionine interaction controls the pH-dependent activation of peptidylglycine monooxygenase.
Blackburn et al., Beaverton, United States. In Biochemistry, 2012
Data indicate that catalytic inactivation of PHM caused by pH changes is accompanied by structural change between two states of the protein involving strong Cu-S interaction that does not involve M314.
The histone H3K36 demethylase Rph1/KDM4 regulates the expression of the photoreactivation gene PHR1.
Lo et al., Taipei, Taiwan. In Nucleic Acids Res, 2011
Results demonstrates that the H3K36 demethylase Rph1 regulates PHR1 expression by association with the promoter and by altering chromatin modifications under the control of DNA damage checkpoint signaling.
Phr1 is required for proper retinocollicular targeting of nasal-dorsal retinal ganglion cells.
Culican et al., Saint Louis, United States. In Vis Neurosci, 2011
These results show that Phr1 is an essential regulator of retinal ganglion cell projection during both dLGN and SC topographic map development.
Probing the production of amidated peptides following genetic and dietary copper manipulations.
Sweedler et al., Urbana, United States. In Plos One, 2010
While glycine-extended reaction intermediates accumulated in the PAM(+/-) mice and reflected dietary copper availability, amidated products were far more prevalent under the conditions examined.
Photochemical control of endogenous ion channels and cellular excitability.
Kramer et al., Berkeley, United States. In Nat Methods, 2008
The method uses a synthetic photoisomerizable small molecule, or photoswitchable affinity label (PAL), that specifically targets K+ channels.
Dioxygen binds end-on to mononuclear copper in a precatalytic enzyme complex.
Amzel et al., Baltimore, United States. In Science, 2004
the structure of the ternary complex of the peptidylglycine-alphahydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) domain of PAM with molecular oxygen and a peptide that contains a D-amino acid designed to trap the precatalytic complex is presented
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