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Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, short cytoplasmic tail, 4

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several "framework" genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to transduce activating signals. The ligands for several KIR proteins are subsets of HLA class I molecules; thus, KIR proteins are thought to play an important role in regulation of the immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: KIR, KIR2DL1, HAD, KIR2DL2, p58
Papers on KIR2DS4
KIR2DS4 and Its Variant KIR1D Are Associated with Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease, Cytomegalovirus, and Overall Survival after Sibling-Related HLA-Matched Transplantation in Patients with Donors with KIR Gene Haplotype A.
Wu et al., Suzhou, China. In Biol Blood Marrow Transplant, Feb 2016
The associations between KIR2DS4 and its variant KIR1D with outcomes of HSCT from a sibling-related HLA-matched donor with KIR haplotype A have not been explored, however.
Genetic (KIR, HLA-C) and Some Clinical Parameters Influencing the Level of Liver Enzymes and Early Virologic Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C.
Kuśnierczyk et al., Poznań, Poland. In Arch Immunol Ther Exp (warsz), Feb 2016
The study revealed that levels of liver enzymes before therapy were about 30 % higher in patients who possessed a variant KIR2DS4 gene with 22-base pair deletion.
The HLA-C*04: 01/KIR2DS4 gene combination and human leukocyte antigen alleles with high population frequency drive rate of HIV disease progression.
Brander et al., Vic, Spain. In Aids, Apr 2015
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes associated with different risks for HIV acquisition and HIV disease progression.
Novel insights in the genomic organization and hotspots of recombination in the human KIR locus through analysis of intergenic regions.
Kuijpers et al., Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Genes Immun, Mar 2015
In this way, we could show that KIR3DL1 and KIR2DS4 gene variants are linked and that--contrary to current views--the gene KIR2DS5 is only present in the telomeric half of the KIR locus.
Impact of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-human leukocyte antigens ligand incompatibility among renal transplantation.
Agrawal et al., Lucknow, India. In Indian J Nephrol, 2015
One of the activating gene KIR2DS4 showed risk (P = 0.0413, odds ratio = 1.91, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.57)
Genetic diversity of the KIR/HLA system and susceptibility to hepatitis C virus-related diseases.
De Paoli et al., Pordenone, Italy. In Plos One, 2014
KIR2DL5 and KIR2DS4 variants were performed using PCR and GeneScan analysis.
KIR genotype distribution among patients with multiple myeloma: Higher prevalence of KIR 2DS4 and KIR 2DS5 genes.
Mahfouz et al., Beirut, Lebanon. In Meta Gene, 2014
CONCLUSION: The interesting observation of the significant presence of KIR2DS4 and KIR2DS5 genes more among multiple myeloma patients than controls is worth further clinical, translational as well as survival research studies in these cases.
Uptake of CCR7 by KIR2DS4⁺ NK cells is induced upon recognition of certain HLA-C alleles.
Marcenaro et al., Genova, Italy. In J Immunol Res, 2014
The KIR2DS4 receptor is the oldest KIR2DS expressed by human NK lymphocytes.
HLA and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors influence the natural course of CMV infection.
Caruso et al., Roma, Italy. In J Infect Dis, 2014
RESULTS: The frequency of the homozygous A haplotype (only KIR2DS4 as activating KIR) was higher in symptomatic patients than controls (30% vs 12%, respectively; odds ratio [OR] = 3.24; P = .01).
Genetic variations in the KIR gene family may contribute to susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis.
Xin et al., Yantai, China. In Mol Biol Rep, 2014
The results of our meta-analysis show statistical significance between the genetic variations in the KIR2DL1, KIR2DS4, KIR2DS5 and KIR3DS1 genes and an increased susceptibility to AS (KIR2DL1: OR 7.82, 95% CI 3.87-15.81,
Variations in KIR genes: a study in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.
Mania-Pramanik et al., Mumbai, India. In Biomed Res Int, 2013
KIR2DS4 variant was associated (P = 0.032) with high viral load.
Presence of the full-length KIR2DS4 gene reduces the chance of rheumatoid arthritis patients to respond to methotrexate treatment.
Kuśnierczyk et al., Wrocław, Poland. In Bmc Musculoskelet Disord, 2013
RESULTS: We observed that patients possessing the full-length KIR2DS4 (KIR2DS4f) gene had a lower chance of responding in comparison to KIR2DS4f-negative cases.
HLA-Cw polypmorphism and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene analysis in Korean colorectal cancer patients.
Oh et al., Seoul, South Korea. In Int J Surg, 2013
p-value < 0.01), and KIR2DS4 (93.2% vs. 98.1%, p-value < 0.05) were lower significantly.
KIR2DS4 promotes HIV-1 pathogenesis: new evidence from analyses of immunogenetic data and natural killer cell function.
Tang et al., Birmingham, United States. In Plos One, 2013
BACKGROUND: KIR2DS4 gene variants encode full-length and truncated protein products, with only the former serving as membrane-bound receptors to activate natural killer (NK) cells.
Are killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes important for the prediction of kidney graft rejection?
Kuśnierczyk, Wrocław, Poland. In Arch Immunol Ther Exp (warsz), 2013
We found an association of KIR2DS4 gene with acute rejection and a protective effect of KIR2DS5 gene.
Association of KIR2DS4 and its variant KIR1D with syphilis in a Chinese Han population.
Ren et al., Jinan, China. In Int J Immunogenet, 2012
KIR1D/KIR1D might play a key role in Treponema pallidum infection in Chinese Han population that belongs to KIR gene haplotype A.
Expression of activating KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS4 genes after hematopoietic cell transplantation: relevance to cytomegalovirus infection.
Zaia et al., Duarte, United States. In Biol Blood Marrow Transplant, 2011
The CMV seropositivity of donors was not associated with activating KIR expression, and donor null expression in those with the KIR2DS2 or KIR2DS4 genotype was not predictive for CMV reactivation in the recipient.
T cells expressing the activating NK-cell receptors KIR2DS4, NKG2C and NKG2D are elevated in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and cytotoxic toward hematopoietic progenitor cell lines.
Dolstra et al., Nijmegen, Netherlands. In Exp Hematol, 2011
Data indicate that the increased frequency of CD8(+) effector-memory T cells with activating NKR KIR2DS4, NKG2C and NKG2D, and cytotoxicity toward hematopoietic cell lines suggests involvement in bone marrow failure and clonal expansion in PNH.
Impact of a functional KIR2DS4 allele on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission among discordant Zambian couples.
Kaslow et al., Birmingham, United States. In J Infect Dis, 2011
KIR2DS4*001, the only allele of KIR2DS4 known to encode a functional activating receptor, was associated with relatively high viral load for HIV-1 and with accelerated transmission of HIV-1 to cohabiting seronegative partners.
The impact of KIR2DS4 alleles and the expression of KIR in the development of acute GVHD after unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic SCT.
He et al., China. In Bone Marrow Transplant, 2010
significant association of full-length KIR2DS4 or KIR2DL1/3DL1 expression with the occurrence of acute graft vs host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
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