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Glutathione S-transferase mu 4

GSTM4, GSTM4-4, hGSTM4-4
Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Diversification of these genes has occurred in regions encoding substrate-binding domains, as well as in tissue expression patterns, to accommodate an increasing number of foreign compounds. Multiple transcript variants, each encoding a distinct protein isoform, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: GST, GSTM1, GSTM3, ACID, HAD
Papers on GSTM4
Genetic Deficiency of Glutathione S-Transferase P Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Bhatnagar et al., Louisville, United States. In Circ Res, Sep 2015
METHODS AND RESULTS: In adult male C57BL/6 mouse hearts, Gstp1/2 was the most abundant GST transcript followed by Gsta4 and Gstm4.1, and GSTP activity was a significant fraction of the total GST activity.
Growth hormone alters the glutathione S-transferase and mitochondrial thioredoxin systems in long-living Ames dwarf mice.
Brown-Borg et al., Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. In J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2014
Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline).
Cross-species transcriptomic analysis elucidates constitutive aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity.
Boutros et al., Toronto, Canada. In Bmc Genomics, 2013
RESULTS: We found significantly more overlap in constitutive mRNA abundances amongst tissues within the same species than from tissues between species and identified 13 genes (Agt, Car3, Creg1, Ctsc, E2f6, Enpp1, Gatm, Gstm4, Kcnj8, Me1, Pdk1, Slc35a3, and Sqrdl) that are affected by AHR-status in four of five tissues.
Targeting Glutathione S-transferase M4 in Ewing sarcoma.
Luo et al., Salt Lake City, United States. In Front Pediatr, 2013
We previously reported that high expression of glutathione S-transferase M4 (GSTM4) in primary tumors correlates with poor patient outcomes.
Heterologous expression and functional characterization of avian mu-class glutathione S-transferases.
Coulombe et al., Logan, United States. In Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol, 2013
JF340152), tGSTM4 (JF340153) from domestic turkeys, and a GSTM4 variant (ewGSTM4, JF340154) from Eastern wild turkeys.
Maternal and offspring xenobiotic metabolism haplotypes and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Scheurer et al., Houston, United States. In Leuk Res, 2013
Two of the five haplotypes were significantly associated with risk: GSTM3/GSTM4 (P=0.01) and GSTP1 (P=0.02).
Biobreeding rat islets exhibit reduced antioxidative defense and N-acetyl cysteine treatment delays type 1 diabetes.
Hessner et al., Seattle, United States. In J Endocrinol, 2013
Gene expression profiles of BB rat islets were highly distinct from F344 islets and under-expressed numerous genes involved in ROS metabolism, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members (Gstm2, Gstm4, Gstm7, Gstt1, Gstp1, and Gstk1), superoxide dismutases (Sod2 and Sod3), peroxidases, and peroxiredoxins.
The redox state of cytochrome c modulates resistance to methotrexate in human MCF7 breast cancer cells.
Ciudad et al., Barcelona, Spain. In Plos One, 2012
Using functional genomics we detected the overexpression of GSTM1 and GSTM4 in methotrexate-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cells, and determined that methotrexate was susceptible of glutathionylation by GSTs.
Effect of GSTM2-5 polymorphisms in relation to tobacco smoke exposures on lung function growth: a birth cohort study.
Ewart et al., Memphis, United States. In Bmc Pulm Med, 2012
METHODS: Growth in forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and change in FEV1/FVC ratio measures were obtained from children in the Isle of Wight birth cohort at ages 10 and 18. Illumina GoldenGate assays were used to genotype 10 tagging polymorphisms from GSTM2 (rs574344 and rs12024479), GSTM3 (rs1537236, rs7483, and rs10735234), GSTM4 (rs668413, rs560018, and rs506008), and GSTM5 (rs929166 and rs11807) genes.
Elevated hepatic iron activates NF-E2-related factor 2-regulated pathway in a dietary iron overload mouse model.
Isom et al., State College, United States. In Toxicol Sci, 2012
Immunoblot analyses showed that TMHF treatment increased the levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTM4, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit, GCL modifier subunit, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, heme oxygenase 1, epoxide hydrolase 1, and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1. Immunofluorescence, carried out to determine the cellular localization of NRF2, showed that NRF2 was detected in the nucleus of hepatocytes from TMHF-treated mice and not from control mice.
Coordinated regulation of hepatic phase I and II drug-metabolizing genes and transporters using AhR-, CAR-, PXR-, PPARα-, and Nrf2-null mice.
Klaassen et al., Kansas City, United States. In Drug Metab Dispos, 2012
Pharmacological activation of each transcription factor leads to mRNA induction of drug metabolic and transport genes in livers of male and female wild-type mice, but no change in null mice: AhR (Cyp1a2, Nqo1, Aldh7a1, Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt1a9, Ugt2b35, Sult5a1, Gstm3, and Mrp4), CAR (Cyp2b10, Aldh1a1, Aldh1a7, Ugt1a1, Ugt2b34, Sult1e1, Sult3a1, Sult5a1, Papps2, Gstt1, Gsta1, Gsta4, Gstm1-4, and Mrp2-4), PXR (Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Ugt1a5, Ugt1a9, Gsta1, Gstm1-m3, Oatp1a4, and Mrp3), PPARα (Cyp4a14, Aldh1a1, mGst3, Gstm4, and Mrp4), and Nrf2 (Nqo1, Aldh1a1, Gsta1, Gsta4, Gstm1-m4, mGst3, and Mrp3-4).
Effects of aging on mRNA profiles for drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of male and female mice.
Klaassen et al., Kansas City, United States. In Drug Metab Dispos, 2012
In male mice, mRNA levels for 40 XPGs (e.g., Oatp1a1, Ces2c, Gstm4, Gstp1, and Ces1e) were lower in aged mice (more than 21 months of age), whereas mRNA levels for four XPGs (e.g., Oat2 and Gstm2) were higher in aged mice.
Expression of GSTM4 and GSTT1 in patients with Tinea versicolor, Tinea inguinalis and Tinea pedis infections: a preliminary study.
Ozturk et al., Kırıkkale, Turkey. In Clin Exp Dermatol, 2011
AIM: To investigate the expression of GSTM4 and GSTT1 in lesional and nonlesional skin of patients with dermatophytoses and Tinea versicolor infection.
Nuclear receptor HNF4α binding sequences are widespread in Alu repeats.
Sladek et al., Riverside, United States. In Bmc Genomics, 2010
We use chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to demonstrate that HNF4α binds Alu elements in the promoters of target genes (ABCC3, APOA4, APOM, ATPIF1, CANX, FEMT1A, GSTM4, IL32, IP6K2, PRLR, PRODH2, SOCS2, TTR) and luciferase assays to show that at least some of those Alu elements can modulate HNF4α-mediated transactivation in vivo (APOM, PRODH2, TTR, APOA4).
Immunohistochemical localization of glutathione s-transferase isoenzymes (gsta, Gstp, Gstm4, And Gstt1) and tumour marker p53 in matched tissue from normal larynx and laryngeal carcinoma: correlations with prognostic factors.
Nimet et al., Ankara, Turkey. In J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2010
OBJECTIVE: The immunohistochemical staining characteristics of glutathione S-transferase (GST) alpha (GSTA), pi (GSTP), mu (GSTM4), and theta (GSTT1) and P53 were investigated in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cases and normal laryngeal tissue from 46 patients.
Glutathione pathway genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer survival after platinum-based chemotherapy.
Weinshilboum et al., Rochester, United States. In Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2010
We observed suggestive associations between survival and GSTT1 copy number and GSTA5, GSTM4, and ABCC4 single nucleotide polymorphisms
The expression of GST isoenzymes and p53 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Işcan et al., Turkey. In Folia Histochem Cytobiol, 2010
There were no significant associations between glutathione-S-transferases and p53 expressions and tumor stage, tumor grade and smoking status (p>0.05).
GSTM4 is a microsatellite-containing EWS/FLI target involved in Ewing's sarcoma oncogenesis and therapeutic resistance.
Lessnick et al., Salt Lake City, United States. In Oncogene, 2009
GSTM4 contributes to the cancerous behavior of Ewing's sarcoma.
Variation in the GST mu locus and tobacco smoke exposure as determinants of childhood lung function.
Gilliland et al., Los Angeles, United States. In Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2009
GSTM4 (glutathione S-transferase mu 4) haplotype 1101000 may be an important determinant for lung function growth
Screening for inter-individual splicing differences in human GSTM4 and the discovery of a single nucleotide substitution related to the tandem skipping of two exons.
Zhang et al., Memphis, United States. In Gene, 2006
a novel splice variant of GSTM4 that resulted from tandem skipping of exons 4 and 5 is identified.
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