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Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 4

GS2, Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase, DXS1283E
This gene encodes a member of the patatin-like family of phospholipases. The encoded enzyme has both triacylglycerol lipase and transacylase activities and may be involved in adipocyte triglyceride homeostasis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome Y. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: myosin V, ACID, CAN, HAD, OUT
Papers on GS2
Direct utilization of waste water algal biomass for ethanol production by cellulolytic Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183.
Ramya et al., Kānchipuram, India. In Bioresour Technol, Feb 2016
Fermentation of 2% (w/v) autoclaved algal biomass produced ethanol concentration of 0.52gL(-1) (solvent yield of 0.19g/g) where as fermentation of acid pretreated algal biomass (2%, w/v) produced ethanol concentration of 4.6gL(-1) in GS2 media (solvent yield of 0.26g/g).
Comparison of molecular profiles of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, placenta and adipose tissue.
Kim et al., Seoul, South Korea. In Int J Mol Med, Jan 2016
The gene expression profiles of stemness-related genes [octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), sex determining region Y-box (SOX)2, MYC, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), NANOG, LIN28 and REX1] and lineage‑related and differentiation stage-related genes [B4GALNT1 (GM2/GS2 synthase), inhibin, beta A (INHBA), distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), proliferator‑activated receptor gamma (PPARG), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPA), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) and SOX9] were compared using RT-PCR.
New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
Theg et al., Zhengzhou, China. In J Exp Bot, Nov 2015
Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC plays a crucial role in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia derived from a wide variety of metabolic processes during plant growth and development.
A Rare Allele of GS2 Enhances Grain Size and Grain Yield in Rice.
Qian et al., Hangzhou, China. In Mol Plant, Nov 2015
Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a dominant QTL, grain size on chromosome 2 (GS2), which encodes Growth-Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4), a transcriptional regulator.
Strong evidence of sexual dimorphic effect of adiposity excess on insulin sensitivity.
Trischitta et al., San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. In Acta Diabetol, Oct 2015
METHODS: Samples used were: Gargano study 1 (GS1), GS2 and Catania study (CS) comprising 3274 individuals.
Assessing the waddle: An evaluation of a 3-point gait score system for ducks.
Karcher et al., United States. In Poult Sci, Aug 2015
Commercial Pekin ducks aged 13 to 14 d (14 d; 248 ducks), 20 to 21 d (21 d; 350 ducks), and 30 to 32 d (31 d; 368 ducks), were video recorded and gait scored using a 3-point system (GS0 = best gait; GS2 = poor gait) as they crossed a Tekscan(®) gait analysis system.
Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase.
Betti et al., Sevilla, Spain. In Plos One, 2014
It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2) is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants.
Revisiting the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway using genome scale metabolic model of Oryza sativa japonica.
Kundu et al., Calcutta, India. In Sci Rep, 2014
Ammonia assimilation in the leaves takes place by the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) which is present in the cytosol (GS1) and chloroplast (GS2).
Genome shuffling of the nonconventional yeast Pichia anomala for improved sugar alcohol production.
Ma et al., Tianjin, China. In Microb Cell Fact, 2014
Through two rounds of genome shuffling, an improved P. anomala isolate GS2-3 could produce 47.1 g/L total sugar alcohols from 100 g/L glucose, which was 32.3% higher than the original strain.
Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase.
Betti et al., Sevilla, Spain. In Front Plant Sci, 2014
This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus.
Evidence for defective Rab GTPase-dependent cargo traffic in immune disorders.
Cullinane et al., Rockville, United States. In Exp Cell Res, 2013
Mutations in RAB27A cause Griscelli Syndrome type 2 (GS2), an autosomal recessive disorder of pigmentation and severe immune deficiency.
Clinical, laboratory and molecular signs of immunodeficiency in patients with partial oculo-cutaneous albinism.
Badolato et al., Brescia, Italy. In Orphanet J Rare Dis, 2012
Albinism with short stature is unique to MAPBP-interacting protein (MAPBPIP) deficiency, while hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) mainly suggests a diagnosis of CHS or GS type 2 (GS2).
[X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis associated to epilepsy, hyperactivity, autism and mental retardation, due to the Xp22.31 microdeletion].
Cepillo-Boluda et al., Madrid, Spain. In Rev Neurol, 2012
The role and implication of these genes in the disease are discussed and the authors suggest a possible contribution of the gene PNPLA4, which was originally described as GS2 and codes for calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta, involved in lipoprotein metabolism, as one of the causes of autism.
Glutamine synthetase in legumes: recent advances in enzyme structure and functional genomics.
Márquez et al., Sevilla, Spain. In Int J Mol Sci, 2011
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme involved in the assimilation of ammonia derived either from nitrate reduction, N(2) fixation, photorespiration or asparagine breakdown.
Griscelli syndrome: a model system to study vesicular trafficking.
Lambert et al., Gent, Belgium. In Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, 2009
Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in either the myosin VA (GS1), RAB27A (GS2) or melanophilin (GS3) genes.
GS2 as a retinol transacylase and as a catalytic dyad independent regulator of retinylester accretion.
Simon et al., Stony Brook, United States. In Mol Genet Metab, 2009
GS2 promotes RE accumulation and may do so either as a catalyst or as a regulatory protein that enhances retinylesters formation catalyzed by other acyl transferases.
Genetic variance in the adiponutrin gene family and childhood obesity.
Ridderstråle et al., Lund, Sweden. In Plos One, 2008
No association between genetic variants in PNPLA4 genes and childhood and adolescent obesity
Molecular screening for GS2 lipase regulators: inhibition of keratinocyte retinylester hydrolysis by TIP47.
Simon et al., Stony Brook, United States. In J Invest Dermatol, 2006
we report the identity of an inhibitor, TIP47, which prevents retinylester hydrolysis catalyzed by GS2 lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase
Identification of a novel keratinocyte retinyl ester hydrolase as a transacylase and lipase.
Simon et al., Stony Brook, United States. In J Invest Dermatol, 2005
The GS2 gene (PNPLA4) encodes a keratinocyte retinyl ester hydrolase. The protein also catalyzes fatty acyl CoA-dependent and -independent retinol esterification, using triolein as substrate and generates diacylglyceride and free fatty acid.
Identification, cloning, expression, and purification of three novel human calcium-independent phospholipase A2 family members possessing triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol transacylase activities.
Gross et al., Saint Louis, United States. In J Biol Chem, 2004
iPLA2epsilon (adiponutrin), iPLA2zeta (TTS-2.2), and iPLA2eta (GS2) are three novel TAG lipases/acylglycerol transacylases that likely participate in TAG hydrolysis and the acyl-CoA independent transacylation of acylglycerols
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