Characterization of the immune defense related tissues, cells, and genes in amphioxus.
Jinan, China. In Sci China Life Sci, 2011
The expression patterns of TLR1 (toll-like receptor 1), C1Q (complement component 1, q subcomponent), ECSIT (evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways), SoxC, DDAHa (Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase a), and NOS (nitric oxide synthase) show that these genes play key roles in amphioxus immunity.
TLR signalling augments macrophage bactericidal activity through mitochondrial ROS.
New Haven, United States. In Nature, 2011
This response involves translocation of a TLR signalling adaptor, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), to mitochondria, where it engages the protein ECSIT (evolutionarily conserved signalling intermediate in Toll pathways), which is implicated in mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly.