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Xanthine dehydrogenase

xanthine oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase
Xanthine dehydrogenase belongs to the group of molybdenum-containing hydroxylases involved in the oxidative metabolism of purines. The enzyme is a homodimer. Xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification. Defects in xanthine dehydrogenase cause xanthinuria, may contribute to adult respiratory stress syndrome, and may potentiate influenza infection through an oxygen metabolite-dependent mechanism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: ACID, CAN, Ros, V1a, SOD
Papers on xanthine oxidase
Biological Activities of Uric Acid in Infection due to Enteropathogenic and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli.
New
Lis et al., Buffalo, United States. In Infect Immun, Feb 2016
UNASSIGNED: In previous work we identified xanthine oxidase (XO) as an important enzyme in the interaction between the host and enteropathogenic and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (EPEC and STEC).
Effects of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus extracts on gout: Anti-inflammatory activity and anti-hyperuricemic effect through xantine oxidase and uricosuric action.
New
Saúde-Guimarães et al., Ouro Preto, Brazil. In J Ethnopharmacol, Feb 2016
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-hyperuricemic effect was investigated using xanthine oxidase assay and uricosuric studies with rats in which hyperuricemia was induced by potassium oxonate and uric acid.
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency.
Review
New
Scaglia et al., Houston, United States. In Mol Genet Metab, Jan 2016
MoCD results in deficiency of the molybdenum cofactor dependent enzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component.
Oral Zinc Supplementation Restores Superoxide Radical Scavengers to Normal Levels in Spermatozoa of Iraqi Asthenospermic Patients.
New
Alsalman et al., Arāk, Iran. In Int J Vitam Nutr Res, Dec 2015
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with oxido-sensitive index level (superoxide dismutase/xanthine oxidase ratio) in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients.
Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.
New
Nie et al., Hong Kong, Hong Kong. In Oxid Med Cell Longev, Dec 2015
Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups.
Serum uric acid and the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease.
Review
New
Mancia et al., Milano, Italy. In J Hypertens, Sep 2015
Another important question is whether lowering serum uric acid can improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes, and what therapeutic mechanism of action could provide more clinical benefits to patients; the available literature shows a trend toward improvement associated with administration of urate-lowering drugs, in particular for the xanthine oxidase inhibitors.
A new paradigm for XOR-catalyzed reactive species generation in the endothelium.
Review
New
Kelley, Pittsburgh, United States. In Pharmacol Rep, Aug 2015
To establish the micro-environmental conditions requisite for in vivo XOR-catalyzed oxidant and NO production, this review assesses the impact of pH, O2 tension, enzyme-endothelial interactions, substrate concentrations and catalytic differences between xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH).
Rational pharmacotherapy (RPT) in goutology: Define the serum uric acid target & treat-to-target patient cohort and review on urate lowering therapy (ULT) applying synthetic drugs.
Review
New
Jansen, Nijmegen, Netherlands. In Joint Bone Spine, Jul 2015
With modern combinations of xanthine oxidase inhibition PLUS uricosuric all serum urate concentrations can be targeted.
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism.
Krastanov et al., Vienna, Austria. In Antioxidants (basel), 2013
The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН(•)) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical ((•)O₂(-)) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging.
Inflammatory Flt3l is essential to mobilize dendritic cells and for T cell responses during Plasmodium infection.
Impact
Nussenzweig et al., New York City, United States. In Nat Med, 2013
We found that type I IFN supports the upregulation of xanthine dehydrogenase, which metabolizes the xanthine accumulating in infected erythrocytes to uric acid.
Hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase down-regulates GLUT1 transcription via SIRT1 resulting in decreased glucose uptake in human placenta.
GeneRIF
Permezel et al., Melbourne, Australia. In J Endocrinol, 2012
XO significantly decreases glucose transporter GLUT1 gene and protein expression and resultant glucose uptake in the placenta.
Assessment of paraoxonase 1, xanthine oxidase and glutathione peroxidase activities, nitric oxide and thiol levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
GeneRIF
Kaya et al., Kayseri, Turkey. In Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2012
Serum XO activities were higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome than in the control women (p<0.001).
Decreased xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with serous ovarian carcinoma.
GeneRIF
Lundin et al., Helsinki, Finland. In Gynecol Oncol, 2012
Decreased XOR is associated with poorer prognosis in patients with serous ovarian cancer.
Novel mutations in xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase cause severe hypouricemia: biochemical and molecular genetic analysis in two Czech families with xanthinuria type I.
GeneRIF
Sebesta et al., Praha, Czech Republic. In Clin Chim Acta, 2012
xanthine oxidase activities in patients were 0 and 0.4 pmol/h/mL of plasma. We found three nonsense changes: p.P214QfsX4 and unpublished p.R825X and p.R881X
Gout therapeutics: new drugs for an old disease.
Review
Impact
Wortmann et al., United States. In Lancet, 2011
The approval of febuxostat, a non-purine-analogue inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration heralds a new era in the treatment of gout.
Determination of oxygen derived free radicals producer (xanthine oxidase) and scavenger (paraoxonase1) enzymes and lipid parameters in different cancer patients.
GeneRIF
Athar et al., Lahore, Pakistan. In Clin Lab, 2010
Lower PON1 and high xanthine oxidase enzyme activities cause an imbalance of the free radical system.
Effect of high-dose allopurinol on exercise in patients with chronic stable angina: a randomised, placebo controlled crossover trial.
Impact
Struthers et al., Dundee, United Kingdom. In Lancet, 2010
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that xanthine oxidase inhibitors can reduce myocardial oxygen consumption for a particular stroke volume.
Molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and molybdenum enzymes.
Review
Impact
Mendel et al., Braunschweig, Germany. In Annu Rev Plant Biol, 2005
(3) Aldehyde oxidase catalyzes the last step of abscisic acid biosynthesis, and (4) xanthine dehydrogenase is essential for purine degradation and stress response.
Singlet molecular oxygen from superoxide anion and sensitized fluorescence of organic molecules.
Impact
Khan, In Science, 1970
Recent identification of O(2)- in the xanthine oxidase system suggests that the generation of singlet oxygen may also occur in enzymatic systems.
Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition: All the Same Effectiveness?
Review
Wagner, Boca Raton, United States. In Unknown Journal, 0001
Depending on the type of exercise, a number of potential mechanisms for the generation of ROS within the muscle have been proposed, such as (a) increased formation of in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, (b) xanthine oxidase (XO) catalysed degradation of AMP (adenosine monophosphate) during ischaemic muscular work leading to increased production of , (c) increased ROS formation in the oxidative-burst reaction due to activation of polymorphoneutrophils (PMNs) after exercise-induced muscle damage, (d) loss of calcium homeostasis in stressed muscles, (e) enhanced cytokine production and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), catecholamine autooxidation and many more (König et al. 2007; Niess et al. 1999; Vina et al. 2000).
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