Clinical review: Genome-wide association studies of skeletal phenotypes: what we have learned and where we are headed.
Boston, United States. In J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2012
Among 59 novel BMD GWAS loci that have not been reported by previous candidate gene association studies, some have been shown to be involved in key biological pathways involving the skeleton, particularly Wnt signaling (AXIN1, LRP5, CTNNB1, DKK1, FOXC2, HOXC6, LRP4, MEF2C, PTHLH, RSPO3, SFRP4, TGFBR3, WLS, WNT3, WNT4, WNT5B, WNT16), bone development: ossification (CLCN7, CSF1, MEF2C, MEPE, PKDCC, PTHLH, RUNX2, SOX6, SOX9, SPP1, SP7), mesenchymal-stem-cell differentiation (FAM3C, MEF2C, RUNX2, SOX4, SOX9, SP7), osteoclast differentiation (JAG1, RUNX2), and TGF-signaling (FOXL1, SPTBN1, TGFBR3).
Seattle, United States. In Unknown Journal, 2007
WNT3 is the only gene in which mutations are known to cause tetra-amelia syndrome.