11Beta-hydroxylase deficiency and other syndromes of mineralocorticoid excess as a rare cause of endocrine hypertension.
Jackson, United States. In Horm Metab Res, Nov 2012
Apart from primary aldosteronism, mineralocorticoid excess can be caused by congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to mutations of the 11beta-hydroxylase and 17alpha-hydroxylase genes, by inactivating mutations of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Chrousos syndrome), endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome), by mutations of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene (apparent mineralocorticoid excess/AME) or licorice/carbenoxolone intake, mutations of the epithelial sodium channel genes (Liddle syndrome), mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (Geller syndrome), and by mutations in the WNK1, WNK4, KLHL3, CUL3 genes (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2 or Gordon syndrome).
Pathophysiology of salt sensitivity hypertension.
Tokyo, Japan. In Ann Med, Jun 2012
Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension.
Renal nerves, WNK4, glucocorticoids, and salt transport.
Portland, United States. In Cell Metab, 2011
A study in Nature Medicine (Mu et al., 2011) shows that dietary salt excess, coupled with β-adrenergic stimulation, increases arterial pressure via glucocorticoid receptors and WNK4, suggesting interactions between these systems in the pathogenesis of hypertension.