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UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2

UDPG, UTP-Glucose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase, UGPase
The enzyme encoded by this gene is an important intermediary in mammalian carbohydrate interconversions. It transfers a glucose moiety from glucose-1-phosphate to MgUTP and forms UDP-glucose and MgPPi. In liver and muscle tissue, UDP-glucose is a direct precursor of glycogen; in lactating mammary gland it is converted to UDP-galactose which is then converted to lactose. The eukaryotic enzyme has no significant sequence similarity to the prokaryotic enzyme. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Papers on UDPG
The crystal structure of human UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase reveals a latch effect that influences enzymatic activity.
Zheng et al., Beijing, China. In Biochem J, 2012
The crystal structure was determined and shown to form octamers through end-to-end and side-by-side interactions. Mutagenesis studies showed that both dissociation of octamers and mutations of the latch loop can significantly affect the activity.
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is rate limiting in vegetative and reproductive phases in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Watanabe et al., Sendai, Japan. In Plant Cell Physiol, 2010
AtUGP1 and AtUGP2 genes are functionally redundant and UGPase activity is essential for both vegetative and reproductive phases in Arabidopsis.
Hypoxia promotes glycogen accumulation through hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of glycogen synthase 1.
del Peso et al., Madrid, Spain. In Plos One, 2009
GYS1 regulation by HIF plays a central role in the hypoxic accumulation of glycogen, and hypoxia also upregulates the expression of UTP:glucose-1-phosphate urydylyltransferase (UGP2) and 1,4-alpha glucan branching enzyme (GBE1)
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is not rate limiting, but is essential in Arabidopsis.
Kleczkowski et al., UmeƄ, Sweden. In Plant Cell Physiol, 2009
UGP1 and UGP2, are differentially expressed, with UGP1 being predominant. UGP1 is closely co-regulated with carbohydrate metabolism, late embryogenesis and seed loading, while UGP2 with stress response, fertilized flowers and photosynthetic genes. [UGP1]
A chloroplastic UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Arabidopsis is the committed enzyme for the first step of sulfolipid biosynthesis.
Saito et al., Yokohama, Japan. In Plant Cell, 2009
The identification of a novel gene, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase3 (UGP3), required for sulfolipid biosynthesis, is described.
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