Early pediatric atopic dermatitis shows only a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) TH2/TH1 cell imbalance, whereas adults acquire CLA(+) TH22/TC22 cell subsets.
Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. In J Allergy Clin Immunol, Oct 2015
METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to measure CD69/inducible costimulator/HLA-DR frequency in memory cell subsets, as well as IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 cytokines, defining TH1/cytotoxic T (TC) 1, TH2/TC2, TH9/TC9, TH17/TC17, and TH22/TC22 populations in CD4 and CD8 cells, respectively.
The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.
Florence, Italy. In J Allergy Clin Immunol, Mar 2015
Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms.
How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?
Greenville, United States. In Nutr Rev, 2013
Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both.
Diagnosis of megaloblastic anaemias.
London, United Kingdom. In Blood Rev, 2006
Other useful investigations include serum/plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), plasma total homocysteine (tHCYS) and serum holo-transcobalamin II assays.
Problems with the serum vitamin B12 assay.
In Lancet, 1980
The metabolically important serum binder is transcobalamin II and deficiency of this protein causes a potentially lethal megaloblastic anaemia even though the serum cobalamin level is normal.