Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammation.
Boston, United States. In Adv Nutr, Jan 2016
Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2'-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3'-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling.
TLR7 induces anergy in human CD4(+) T cells.
New Haven, United States. In Nat Immunol, 2015
Here we found that engagement of TLR7 in CD4(+) T cells induced intracellular calcium flux with activation of an anergic gene-expression program dependent on the transcription factor NFATc2, as well as unresponsiveness of T cells.