Role of Toll-like receptors in diabetic renal lesions in a miniature pig model.
Beijing, China. In Sci Adv, Jun 2015
Functional and pathological markers, expression and activation of endogenous TLR ligands [HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) and HMGB1], TLR1 to TLR11 and their downstream signaling pathway molecules (MyD88, IRAK-1, and IRF-3), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway molecules (IKKβ, IκBα, and NF-κBp65), inflammatory cytokines [IL-6 (interleukin-6), MIP-2, MCP-1, CCL5, and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1)], and infiltration of inflammatory cells were systematically evaluated.
Toll-like receptor recognition of Toxoplasma gondii.
Bethesda, United States. In Int J Parasitol, 2006
In the following review, we summarise the evidence for specific TLR function in host resistance to T. gondii focusing on the recent discovery in the parasite of a profilin-like ligand that potently stimulates TLR11 and regulates the production of IL-12, a cytokine necessary for the protective IFN-gamma response.
'Toll' gates for future immunotherapy.
Suita, Japan. In Curr Pharm Des, 2005
urinary Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein as a TLR4 ligand, siRNA as TLR3 or 7 ligand, Plasmodium falciparum Hemozoin as a TLR9 ligand, Profilin-like protein in Toxoplasma gondii as a TLR11 ligand) and antagonists (G-rich oligodeoxynucleotides as antagonist for TLR9) have been identified, and some of other TLR ligands are already under clinical trials.