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Thymine-DNA glycosylase

TDG, thymine-DNA glycosylase
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TDG/mug DNA glycosylase family. Thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) removes thymine moieties from G/T mismatches by hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond between the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and the mispaired thymine. With lower activity, this enzyme also removes thymine from C/T and T/T mispairings. TDG can also remove uracil and 5-bromouracil from mispairings with guanine. This enzyme plays a central role in cellular defense against genetic mutation caused by the spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine. This gene may have a pseudogene in the p arm of chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: CAN, ACID, uracil-DNA glycosylase, hBD-4, V1a
Papers using TDG antibodies
Statistics of the Comet assay: a key to discriminate between genotoxic effects
Haber James E, In PLoS Biology, 2002
... Tdg expression constructs.Chemicals and reagents were purchased from Sigma, Complete protease inhibitor from Roche, RNase from Qiagen and UGI from New ...
Enhanced CpG mutability and tumorigenesis in MBD4-deficient mice
Fugmann Sebastian D., In PLoS ONE, 2001
... mismatch glycosylase; also known as thermostable TDG from Trevigen, USA catalog No 4070–500-EB) ...
Papers on TDG
Expression of DNA methylation genes in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Nicoletti et al., Catania, Italy. In J Neuroimmunol, Feb 2016
We have found that SP MS is characterized by a significant upregulation of two genes belonging to the MBD family genes, MBD2 and MBD4, and by a downregulation of TDG and TET3.
Neil DNA glycosylases promote substrate turnover by Tdg during DNA demethylation.
Niehrs et al., Mainz, Germany. In Nat Struct Mol Biol, Feb 2016
In the Tet-Tdg demethylation pathway, methylated cytosine is iteratively oxidized by Tet dioxygenases, and unmodified cytosine is restored via thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg).
Uracil-DNA Glycosylase UNG Promotes Tet-mediated DNA Demethylation.
Du et al., Shanghai, China. In J Biol Chem, Feb 2016
In mammals, active DNA demethylation involves oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by Tet dioxygenases and excision of these two oxidized bases by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG).
Multifaceted roles for thymine DNA glycosylase in embryonic development and human carcinogenesis.
Liu et al., Lexington, United States. In Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (shanghai), Jan 2016
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in DNA repair, DNA demethylation, and transcriptional regulation.
Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements.
Smiraglia et al., Buffalo, United States. In Oncotarget, Jan 2016
Time-resolved chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on the SGK1 locus reveals dynamic recruitment of AR and RNA Polymerase II, as well as the recruitment of proteins involved in the DNA demethylation process, TET1 and TDG.
Oncogenic Myc Induces Expression of Glutamine Synthetase through Promoter Demethylation.
Zong et al., Stony Brook, United States. In Cell Metab, Jan 2016
This is through upregulation of a Myc transcriptional target thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), which promotes active demethylation of the GS promoter and its increased expression.
Selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine with micelle incarcerated oxidants to determine it at single base resolution.
Suetake et al., Tokyo, Japan. In Bioorg Med Chem Lett, Dec 2015
This process followed by thymine DNA glycosylase is proposed to be the mechanism for methylcytosine demethylation.
MicroRNAs mediated targeting on the Yin-yang dynamics of DNA methylation in disease and development.
Lee et al., Hong Kong, Hong Kong. In Int J Biochem Cell Biol, Oct 2015
Conversion to unmethylated cytosine (5C) is further facilitated by excision mechanism through thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) or base excision repair (BER) pathway.
Role of base excision repair in maintaining the genetic and epigenetic integrity of CpG sites.
Drohat et al., Philadelphia, United States. In Dna Repair (amst), Aug 2015
This perspective focuses on two enzymes that are of particular importance for the genetic and epigenetic integrity of CpG sites, methyl binding domain 4 (MBD4) and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG).
Epigenetic modifications in DNA could mimic oxidative DNA damage: A double-edged sword.
Kuraoka et al., Yokohama, Japan. In Dna Repair (amst), Aug 2015
The resulting G · T mismatch pair is recognized by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and revereted to a G · C pair.
Molecular basis for 5-carboxycytosine recognition by RNA polymerase II elongation complex.
Wang et al., San Diego, United States. In Nature, Aug 2015
TET enzymes successively convert 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), with 5fC and 5caC subject to removal by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) in conjunction with base excision repair.
Single-base resolution analysis of active DNA demethylation using methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing.
Zhang et al., Boston, United States. In Nat Biotechnol, 2014
Active DNA demethylation in mammals involves TET-mediated iterative oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC)/5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and subsequent excision repair of highly oxidized cytosine bases 5-formylcytosine (5fC)/5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG).
Enzymatic DNA oxidation: mechanisms and biological significance.
Walsh et al., Shanghai, China. In Bmb Rep, 2014
The higher oxidation products (5fC and 5caC) are recognized and excised by the DNA glycosylase TDG via the base excision repair pathway.
Active and passive demethylation of male and female pronuclear DNA in the mammalian zygote.
Xu et al., Beijing, China. In Cell Stem Cell, 2014
Active demethylation is known to depend on 5mC oxidation by Tet dioxygenases and excision of oxidized bases by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG).
Tet and TDG mediate DNA demethylation essential for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in somatic cell reprogramming.
Xu et al., Shanghai, China. In Cell Stem Cell, 2014
Reprogramming of MEFs deficient in TDG is similarly impaired.
A population-based study of DNA repair gene variants in relation to non-melanoma skin cancer as a marker of a cancer-prone phenotype.
Alberg et al., Baltimore, United States. In Carcinogenesis, 2012
genetic variants in TDG, important not only in base excision repair but also in regulating the epigenome and gene expression, which may contribute to the non-melanoma skin cancer associated increase in overall cancer risk.
Lesion processing by a repair enzyme is severely curtailed by residues needed to prevent aberrant activity on undamaged DNA.
Drohat et al., Baltimore, United States. In Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012
We solved a crystal structure of TDG (catalytic domain) bound to a substrate analog and characterized active-site residues by mutagenesis, kinetics, and molecular dynamics simulations.
Thymine DNA glycosylase specifically recognizes 5-carboxylcytosine-modified DNA.
He et al., Chicago, United States. In Nat Chem Biol, 2012
5-carboxylcytosine is specifically recognized in the active site of thymine DNA glycosylase
Embryonic lethality in mice lacking mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase is partially prevented by DOPS, a precursor of noradrenaline.
Uehara et al., Sendai, Japan. In Tohoku J Exp Med, 2011
Embryonic lethality in Tdg (-/-) embryos is due, in part, to the reduction of noradrenaline levels.
Thymine DNA glycosylase can rapidly excise 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine: potential implications for active demethylation of CpG sites.
Drohat et al., Baltimore, United States. In J Biol Chem, 2011
Thymine DNA glycosylase can rapidly excise 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine: potential implications for active demethylation of CpG sites.
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