Malate and Fumarate Extend Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Tampa, United States. In Plos One, Dec 2012
Malate, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolite, increased lifespan and thermotolerance in the nematode Malate can be synthesized from fumarate by the enzyme fumarase and further oxidized to oxaloacetate by malate dehydrogenase with the accompanying reduction of NAD.
Basophil modulation by cytokine instruction.
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Erlangen, Germany. In Eur J Immunol, Oct 2012
IL-3, GM-CSF, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin activate the STAT5 pathway that promotes proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion but also induces a negative feedback loop via Pim-1 and SOCS proteins.