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SMAD family member 2

Smad2
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signal of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. This protein is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. In response to TGF-beta signal, this protein is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptors. The phosphorylation induces the dissociation of this protein with SARA and the association with the family member SMAD4. The association with SMAD4 is important for the translocation of this protein into the nucleus, where it binds to target promoters and forms a transcription repressor complex with other cofactors. This protein can also be phosphorylated by activin type 1 receptor kinase, and mediates the signal from the activin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: TGF-beta, Smad3, CAN, Smad4, V1a
Papers using Smad2 antibodies
Nuclear factor I-C links platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta1 signaling to skin wound healing progression.
Supplier
Lee Sean Bong, In PLoS ONE, 2008
... Rabbit anti-p-Smad3 and total Smad2/3 antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA) ...
GADD34-PP1c recruited by Smad7 dephosphorylates TGF type I receptor.
Supplier
Goumans Marie Jose, In PLoS ONE, 2003
... The antibodies used were as follows: anti-phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) (138D4) and anti-Smad2 (L16D3) antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling.
The emerging role of lysophosphatidic acid in cancer
Supplier
Quaranta Vito et al., In Journal of Oncology, 2002
... Polyclonal antibody (pAb) against phosphorylated Smad2 (Ser465/467), GAPDH, and monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Smad2/3 were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA), BD ...
Hmg-CoA reductase inhibitor modulates monocyte-endothelial cell interaction under physiological flow conditions in vitro: involvement of Rho GTPase-dependent mechanism
Supplier
Kim Jae Ho et al., In Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 2000
... Anti-phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) and anti-Smad2 antibodies were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA) ...
CHMP5 is essential for late endosome function and down-regulation of receptor signaling during mouse embryogenesis
Supplier
Ghosh Sankar et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1999
... The antibodies used were anti–phospho-Erk1/2 (Cell Signaling Technology), anti–phospho-Smad2 (Cell Signaling Technology), anti-Smad4 (Santa Cruz ...
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Papers on Smad2
Marek's disease: Genetic regulation of gallid herpesvirus 2 infection and latency.
Review
New
Muylkens et al., Namur, Belgium. In Vet J, 30 Sep 2015
Inhibition of expression of the pro-apoptotic factors JARID2 and SMAD2 by viral microRNAs may promote the survival and proliferation of GaHV-2 latently infected cells, thus enhancing tumorigenesis, while inhibition of interleukin 18 by viral microRNAs may be involved in evasion of immune surveillance.
Synonymous variants in HTRA1 implicated in AMD susceptibility impair its capacity to regulate TGF-β signaling.
New
Weber et al., Regensburg, Germany. In Hum Mol Genet, 26 Sep 2015
In addition, structurally altered HTRA1 led to an impaired autocrine TGF-β signaling in microglia, as measured by a strong down regulation of downstream effectors of the TGF-β cascade such as phosphorylated SMAD2 and PAI-1 expression.
Activin A increases human trophoblast invasion by inducing SNAIL-mediated MMP2 up-regulation through ALK4.
New
Leung et al., Vancouver, Canada. In J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 25 Sep 2015
In HTR8/SVneo cells, activin A-induced production of SNAIL and MMP2 was abolished by pre-treatment with the TGF-β type I receptor (ALK4/5/7) inhibitor SB431542 or siRNA targeting ALK4, SMAD2/3 or common SMAD4.
Structural determinants of heparin-transforming growth factor-β1 interactions and their effects on signalling.
New
Cool et al., Liverpool, United Kingdom. In Glycobiology, 24 Sep 2015
In cell-based assays heparin, 2-O-, 6-O- and N-desulphated re-N-acetylated heparin, and oligosaccharides 14-24 saccharides (dp14-24) in length all increased the phosphorylation of SMAD2 after 6 h stimulation with TGF-β1.
Functional interaction between COL4A1/COL4A2 and SMAD3 risk loci for coronary artery disease.
New
McPherson et al., Ottawa, Canada. In Atherosclerosis, 20 Sep 2015
siRNA mediated knockdown of SMAD3 and SMAD4 abolished the stimulatory effects of TGFβ1 on COL4A1/COL4A2 (p < 0.001) whereas SMAD2 knockdown had no effect.
Myostatin is a direct regulator of osteoclast differentiation and its inhibition reduces inflammatory joint destruction in mice.
New
Impact
Pap et al., Münster, Germany. In Nat Med, 03 Sep 2015
Myostatin strongly accelerates receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast formation in vitro through transcription factor SMAD2-dependent regulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATC1).
GDF11 Increases with Age and Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.
New
Impact
Glass et al., Cambridge, United States. In Cell Metab, 07 Aug 2015
Mechanistically, GDF11 and myostatin both induce SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, inhibit myoblast differentiation, and regulate identical downstream signaling.
β-Catenin Regulates Primitive Streak Induction through Collaborative Interactions with SMAD2/SMAD3 and OCT4.
New
Impact
Semb et al., Copenhagen, Denmark. In Cell Stem Cell, 04 Jul 2015
β-catenin occupies regulatory regions in numerous PS and neural crest genes, and direct interactions between β-catenin and the Nodal effectors SMAD2/SMAD3 are required at these regions for PS gene activation.
Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate), a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway.
New
Lahn et al., Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Germany. In Drug Des Devel Ther, Dec 2014
Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate) is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway.
Megakaryocytes maintain homeostatic quiescence and promote post-injury regeneration of hematopoietic stem cells.
New
Impact
Li et al., Kansas City, United States. In Nat Med, Nov 2014
MK ablation led to reduced levels of biologically active TGF-β1 protein in the bone marrow and nuclear-localized phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (pSMAD2/3) in HSCs, suggesting that MKs maintain HSC quiescence through TGF-β-SMAD signaling.
New tricks for an old fox: impact of TGFβ on the DNA damage response and genomic stability.
Review
New
Cucinotta et al., New York City, United States. In Sci Signal, Oct 2014
Recent studies have shown that SMAD2 and SMAD7 participate in the DDR in a manner dependent on ATM or TGFβ receptor type I, respectively, in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells.
The genetic basis of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Review
New
Chung et al., New York City, United States. In Hum Genet, May 2014
CAV1 regulates SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and mutations in CAV1 are a rare cause of PAH.
Molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients.
Review
Zuo et al., Changsha, China. In Chin Med J (engl), 2013
Second, transforming growth factor receptor/SMAD2/3 signaling activation plays an important role in Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in T cells which toget converge to cause inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension following tacrolimus treatment.
De novo mutations in histone-modifying genes in congenital heart disease.
Impact
Lifton et al., New Haven, United States. In Nature, 2013
There are also two de novo mutations in SMAD2, which regulates H3K27 methylation in the embryonic left-right organizer.
Regulation of cumulus expansion and hyaluronan synthesis in porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes during in vitro maturation.
Review
Nagyova, Czech Republic. In Endocr Regul, 2012
Furthermore, SMAD2/3 signaling pathway is involved in the control of both cumulus expansion and steroidogenesis in porcine OCCs, since SMAD2/3 activation by GDF9/ TGFβ produced by oocyte and/or cumulus cells, significantly affects gonadotropin-induced HA and progesterone synthesis by porcine cumulus cells.
Smad2 decelerates re-epithelialization during gingival wound healing.
GeneRIF
Takashiba et al., Okayama, Japan. In J Dent Res, 2012
results indicated Smad2 has inhibitory effects in regulating keratinocyte migration during gingival wound healing. TGF-beta/Smad2 signaling mediating alteration of K16 expression must be tightly regulated during periodontal regeneration.
Post-translational regulation of TGF-β receptor and Smad signaling.
GeneRIF
Derynck et al., San Francisco, United States. In Febs Lett, 2012
TGF-beta family signaling through Smads is conceptually a simple and linear signaling pathway, driven by sequential phosphorylation, with type II receptors activating type I receptors, which in turn activate R-Smads [review]
Dynamics of TGF-β/Smad signaling.
GeneRIF
Liu et al., Freiburg, Germany. In Febs Lett, 2012
analysis of the dynamics of TGF-beta and Smad2/Smad3 signaling [review]
Smad2/Smad3 in endothelium is indispensable for vascular stability via S1PR1 and N-cadherin expressions.
GeneRIF
Kato et al., Tsukuba, Japan. In Blood, 2012
Smad2/3 signaling in ECs is indispensable for maintenance of vascular integrity via the fine-tuning of N-cadherin, VE-cadherin, and S1PR1 expressions in the vasculature.
R-Smad competition controls activin receptor output in Drosophila.
GeneRIF
O'Connor et al., Minneapolis, United States. In Plos One, 2011
Data show that dSmad2 directly influences Baboon's phosphorylation of Mad.
More papers using Smad2 antibodies
Alpha 3 beta 1 adhesion to laminin-5 and invasin: critical and differential role of integrin residues clustered at the boundary between alpha 3 N-terminal repeats 2 and 3
Supplier
Chapman Harold A. et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1998
... Secondary HRP-conjugated antibodies and Smad2/3 pAb were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc ...
Krox-20 inhibits Jun-NH2-terminal kinase/c-Jun to control Schwann cell proliferation and death
Supplier
Jessen Kristjan R. et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1998
... Antibody against c-Jun and SMAD2 were purchased from BD Biosciences.
Activin receptors: cellular signalling by receptor serine kinases
Supplier
Hamada Hiroshi et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1995
... ten Dijke, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands), rabbit monoclonal antibodies to p-Smad2 (Cell Signaling Technology), and Alexa Fluor ...
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