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SMAD family member 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signal of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. This protein is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. In response to TGF-beta signal, this protein is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptors. The phosphorylation induces the dissociation of this protein with SARA and the association with the family member SMAD4. The association with SMAD4 is important for the translocation of this protein into the nucleus, where it binds to target promoters and forms a transcription repressor complex with other cofactors. This protein can also be phosphorylated by activin type 1 receptor kinase, and mediates the signal from the activin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: TGF-beta, Smad3, Smad4, V1a, CAN
Papers using Smad2 antibodies
Nuclear factor I-C links platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta1 signaling to skin wound healing progression.
Lee Sean Bong, In PLoS ONE, 2008
... Rabbit anti-p-Smad3 and total Smad2/3 antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA) ...
GADD34-PP1c recruited by Smad7 dephosphorylates TGF type I receptor.
Goumans Marie Jose, In PLoS ONE, 2003
... The antibodies used were as follows: anti-phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) (138D4) and anti-Smad2 (L16D3) antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling.
The emerging role of lysophosphatidic acid in cancer
Quaranta Vito et al., In Journal of Oncology, 2002
... Polyclonal antibody (pAb) against phosphorylated Smad2 (Ser465/467), GAPDH, and monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Smad2/3 were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA), BD ...
Hmg-CoA reductase inhibitor modulates monocyte-endothelial cell interaction under physiological flow conditions in vitro: involvement of Rho GTPase-dependent mechanism
Kim Jae Ho et al., In Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 2000
... Anti-phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) and anti-Smad2 antibodies were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA) ...
CHMP5 is essential for late endosome function and down-regulation of receptor signaling during mouse embryogenesis
Ghosh Sankar et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1999
... The antibodies used were anti–phospho-Erk1/2 (Cell Signaling Technology), anti–phospho-Smad2 (Cell Signaling Technology), anti-Smad4 (Santa Cruz ...
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Papers on Smad2
miR-212/132 downregulates SMAD2 expression to suppress the G1/S phase transition of the cell cycle and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in cervical cancer cells.
Tang et al., Tianjin, China. In Iubmb Life, 19 Jun 2015
Subsequently, SMAD2 was identified as a common target of miR-212/132 and was found to be negatively regulated by miR-212/132 at the mRNA and protein levels.
Glabridin inhibits cancer stem cell-like properties of human breast cancer cells: An epigenetic regulation of miR-148a/SMAd2 signaling.
Li et al., Nanjing, China. In Mol Carcinog, 15 Jun 2015
Here, we reported that GLA attenuated the CSC-like properties through microRNA-148a (miR-148a)/transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-SMAD2 signal pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Modulation of miR-21 signaling by MPS1 in human glioblastoma.
Camphausen et al., Bethesda, United States. In Oncotarget, 15 Jun 2015
Further, we demonstrate that MPS1 mediates phosphorylation of SMAD3 but not SMAD2 in GBM cells; A possible mechanism behind miR-21 modulation by MPS1.
Metformin as possible therapy of pulmonary arterio venous malformation in HHT patients.
Lacombe et al., Boulogne-Billancourt, France. In Med Hypotheses, 12 Jun 2015
Metformin may harbor a pleiotropic action, (a) decreasing inflammation (via anti COX 2 pathway and other mechanism), (b) decreasing COX 2 and VEGF mediated angiogenesis, (c) increasing negative angiogenic regulation pathway by stimulating SMAD 2/3 expression either directly or via the AMPK pathway and preventing from pulmonary hypertension development and (d) diminushin oxidative stress.
β-Catenin Regulates Primitive Streak Induction through Collaborative Interactions with SMAD2/SMAD3 and OCT4.
Semb et al., Copenhagen, Denmark. In Cell Stem Cell, 21 May 2015
β-catenin occupies regulatory regions in numerous PS and neural crest genes, and direct interactions between β-catenin and the Nodal effectors SMAD2/SMAD3 are required at these regions for PS gene activation.
MicroRNA-144 dysregulates the transforming growth factor-β signaling cascade and contributes to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after human lung transplantation.
Mohanakumar et al., Saint Louis, United States. In J Heart Lung Transplant, 27 Apr 2015
In vitro transfection confirmed that over-expression of miR-144 results in a reduction in TGIF1 and an increase in SMAD2, SMAD4, fibroblast growth factor-6, TGF-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor.
Megakaryocytes maintain homeostatic quiescence and promote post-injury regeneration of hematopoietic stem cells.
Li et al., Kansas City, United States. In Nat Med, Nov 2014
MK ablation led to reduced levels of biologically active TGF-β1 protein in the bone marrow and nuclear-localized phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (pSMAD2/3) in HSCs, suggesting that MKs maintain HSC quiescence through TGF-β-SMAD signaling.
The genetic basis of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Chung et al., New York City, United States. In Hum Genet, May 2014
CAV1 regulates SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and mutations in CAV1 are a rare cause of PAH.
De novo mutations in histone-modifying genes in congenital heart disease.
Lifton et al., New Haven, United States. In Nature, 2013
There are also two de novo mutations in SMAD2, which regulates H3K27 methylation in the embryonic left-right organizer.
The kinase PKCα selectively upregulates interleukin-17A during Th17 cell immune responses.
Baier et al., Innsbruck, Austria. In Immunity, 2013
We have shown that PKCα physically interacts and functionally cooperates with TGFβRI to promote robust SMAD2-3 activation.
TGF-β signaling in tissue fibrosis: redox controls, target genes and therapeutic opportunities.
Higgins et al., Albany, United States. In Cell Signal, 2013
ROS generation in response to TGF-β1 stimulation is rapid and precedes PAI-1 induction; engagement of non-SMAD (e.g., EGFR, Src kinase, MAP kinases, p53) and SMAD2/3 pathways are both required for PAI-1 expression and are ROS-dependent.
Regulation of cumulus expansion and hyaluronan synthesis in porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes during in vitro maturation.
Nagyova, Czech Republic. In Endocr Regul, 2012
Furthermore, SMAD2/3 signaling pathway is involved in the control of both cumulus expansion and steroidogenesis in porcine OCCs, since SMAD2/3 activation by GDF9/ TGFβ produced by oocyte and/or cumulus cells, significantly affects gonadotropin-induced HA and progesterone synthesis by porcine cumulus cells.
From tall to short: the role of TGFβ signaling in growth and its disorders.
Cormier-Daire et al., Paris, France. In Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet, 2012
We found an increased level of active TGFβ in the fibroblast medium from patients with FBN1 or ADAMTSL2 mutations and an enhanced phosphorylated SMAD2 level, allowing us to conclude at an enhanced TGFβ signaling in GD and AD.
Smad2 decelerates re-epithelialization during gingival wound healing.
Takashiba et al., Okayama, Japan. In J Dent Res, 2012
results indicated Smad2 has inhibitory effects in regulating keratinocyte migration during gingival wound healing. TGF-beta/Smad2 signaling mediating alteration of K16 expression must be tightly regulated during periodontal regeneration.
Post-translational regulation of TGF-β receptor and Smad signaling.
Derynck et al., San Francisco, United States. In Febs Lett, 2012
TGF-beta family signaling through Smads is conceptually a simple and linear signaling pathway, driven by sequential phosphorylation, with type II receptors activating type I receptors, which in turn activate R-Smads [review]
Dynamics of TGF-β/Smad signaling.
Liu et al., Freiburg, Germany. In Febs Lett, 2012
analysis of the dynamics of TGF-beta and Smad2/Smad3 signaling [review]
Smad2/Smad3 in endothelium is indispensable for vascular stability via S1PR1 and N-cadherin expressions.
Kato et al., Tsukuba, Japan. In Blood, 2012
Smad2/3 signaling in ECs is indispensable for maintenance of vascular integrity via the fine-tuning of N-cadherin, VE-cadherin, and S1PR1 expressions in the vasculature.
TGF-β1 → SMAD/p53/USF2 → PAI-1 transcriptional axis in ureteral obstruction-induced renal fibrosis.
Higgins et al., Albany, United States. In Cell Tissue Res, 2012
SMAD2/3, pp60(c-src), EGFR, and p53 activation are each increased in the obstructed kidney.
R-Smad competition controls activin receptor output in Drosophila.
O'Connor et al., Minneapolis, United States. In Plos One, 2011
Data show that dSmad2 directly influences Baboon's phosphorylation of Mad.
The kinases MEKK2 and MEKK3 regulate transforming growth factor-β-mediated helper T cell differentiation.
Su et al., New Haven, United States. In Immunity, 2011
Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) T cells exhibited impaired phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 proteins at their linker regions, which negatively regulated the TGF-β responses in T cells.
More papers using Smad2 antibodies
Alpha 3 beta 1 adhesion to laminin-5 and invasin: critical and differential role of integrin residues clustered at the boundary between alpha 3 N-terminal repeats 2 and 3
Chapman Harold A. et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1998
... Secondary HRP-conjugated antibodies and Smad2/3 pAb were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc ...
Krox-20 inhibits Jun-NH2-terminal kinase/c-Jun to control Schwann cell proliferation and death
Jessen Kristjan R. et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1998
... Antibody against c-Jun and SMAD2 were purchased from BD Biosciences.
Activin receptors: cellular signalling by receptor serine kinases
Hamada Hiroshi et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1995
... ten Dijke, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands), rabbit monoclonal antibodies to p-Smad2 (Cell Signaling Technology), and Alexa Fluor ...
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