M2 macrophages promote beta-cell proliferation by up-regulation of SMAD7.
Pittsburgh, United States. In Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 17 Apr 2014
M2 macrophages not only release TGFβ1 to directly induce up-regulation of SMAD7 in beta cells but also release EGF to activate EGF receptor signaling that inhibits TGFβ1-activated SMAD2 nuclear translocation, resulting in TGFβ signaling inhibition.
Calcitriol modulates receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in diabetic hearts.
Taipei, Taiwan. In Int J Cardiol, 28 Mar 2014
Western blot was used to evaluate protein expressions of myocardial RAGE, TNF-α, p65 subunit of NF-κB (p65), α subunit of inhibitor of κB (IκBα), subunits of NADPH oxidase (NOX4 and p22(phox)), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), TGF-β1, TGF-β receptor I, total and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 and ERK, matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2) and procollagen I. RESULTS: As compared to control, diabetic rats had increased expressions of cardiac RAGE, TNF-α, p22(phox), AT1R, and TGF-β1, which were significantly attenuated in the diabetic rats treated with calcitriol.
Post-translational regulation of TGF-β receptor and Smad signaling.
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San Francisco, United States. In Febs Lett, 2012
TGF-beta family signaling through Smads is conceptually a simple and linear signaling pathway, driven by sequential phosphorylation, with type II receptors activating type I receptors, which in turn activate R-Smads [review]