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SMAD family member 2
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signal of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. This protein is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. In response to TGF-beta signal, this protein is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptors. The phosphorylation induces the dissociation of this protein with SARA and the association with the family member SMAD4. The association with SMAD4 is important for the translocation of this protein into the nucleus, where it binds to target promoters and forms a transcription repressor complex with other cofactors. This protein can also be phosphorylated by activin type 1 receptor kinase, and mediates the signal from the activin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from
Tsirka et al., Stony Brook, United States. In Oncotarget, Feb 2016
Nrp1-deficient or EG00229-treated wild-type microglia exhibited a shift towards anti-tumorigenicity as evident by altered inflammatory marker profiles in vivo and decreased SMAD2/3 activation when conditioned in the presence of glioma-derived factors.
Babitt et al., Reggio nell'Emilia, Italy. In Endocrinology, Feb 2016
Here, we show that low concentrations of Activin B, but not Activin A, stimulate prolonged SMAD1/5/8 signaling and hepcidin expression in liver cells to a similar degree as canonical SMAD2/3 signaling, and with similar or modestly reduced potency compared with BMP6.
Muylkens et al., Namur, Belgium. In Vet J, Sep 2015
Inhibition of expression of the pro-apoptotic factors JARID2 and SMAD2 by viral microRNAs may promote the survival and proliferation of GaHV-2 latently infected cells, thus enhancing tumorigenesis, while inhibition of interleukin 18 by viral microRNAs may be involved in evasion of immune surveillance.
Semb et al., Copenhagen, Denmark. In Cell Stem Cell, Jul 2015
β-catenin occupies regulatory regions in numerous PS and neural crest genes, and direct interactions between β-catenin and the Nodal effectors SMAD2/SMAD3 are required at these regions for PS gene activation.
Lahn et al., Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Germany. In Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014
Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate) is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway.
Li et al., Kansas City, United States. In Nat Med, 2014
MK ablation led to reduced levels of biologically active TGF-β1 protein in the bone marrow and nuclear-localized phosphorylated SMAD2/3 (pSMAD2/3) in HSCs, suggesting that MKs maintain HSC quiescence through TGF-β-SMAD signaling.
Zuo et al., Changsha, China. In Chin Med J (engl), 2013
Second, transforming growth factor receptor/SMAD2/3 signaling activation plays an important role in Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in T cells which toget converge to cause inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension following tacrolimus treatment.
Takashiba et al., Okayama, Japan. In J Dent Res, 2012
results indicated Smad2 has inhibitory effects in regulating keratinocyte migration during gingival wound healing. TGF-beta/Smad2 signaling mediating alteration of K16 expression must be tightly regulated during periodontal regeneration.
Derynck et al., San Francisco, United States. In Febs Lett, 2012
TGF-beta family signaling through Smads is conceptually a simple and linear signaling pathway, driven by sequential phosphorylation, with type II receptors activating type I receptors, which in turn activate R-Smads [review]