Diagnosis of Stroke-Associated Pneumonia: Recommendations From the Pneumonia in Stroke Consensus Group.
Salford, United Kingdom. In Stroke, Aug 2015
RESULTS: Consensus was reached for the following: (1) stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is the recommended terminology for the spectrum of lower respiratory tract infections within the first 7 days after stroke onset; (2) modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria are proposed for SAP as follows-probable SAP: CDC criteria met, but typical chest x-ray changes absent even after repeat or serial chest x-ray; definite SAP: CDC criteria met, including typical chest x-ray changes; (3) there is limited evidence for a diagnostic role of white blood cell count or C-reactive protein in SAP; and (4) there is insufficient evidence for the use of other biomarkers (eg, procalcitonin).
SAP signaling: a dual mechanism of action.
Saint Louis, United States. In Immunity, 2012
(2012) show that the adaptor protein SAP regulates both positive and negative signals through SLAM receptors to stabilize intercellular contacts.