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V-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1

Raf, Raf-1, NS5, c-Raf
This gene is the cellular homolog of viral raf gene (v-raf). The encoded protein is a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), which functions downstream of the Ras family of membrane associated GTPases to which it binds directly. Once activated, the cellular RAF1 protein can phosphorylate to activate the dual specificity protein kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate to activate the serine/threonine specific protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2. Activated ERKs are pleiotropic effectors of cell physiology and play an important role in the control of gene expression involved in the cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with Noonan syndrome 5 and LEOPARD syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: ERK, CAN, BRAF, Akt, MAPK
Papers using Raf antibodies
Cisplatin ototoxicity involves cytokines and STAT6 signaling network
Supplier
He L C et al., In Cell Death & Disease, 2010
... ) and anti-phospho-Raf1 (Tyr340/Tyr341) were purchased from Cell Signaling (Cell Signaling Tech., Danvers, ...
Kinase-Dead BRAF and Oncogenic RAS Cooperate to Drive Tumor Progression through CRAF.
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Bauer Joseph Alan, In PLoS ONE, 2009
... Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against BAD, phospho-Ser112, phospho-Ser136, ERK, phospho-ERK, phospho-c-Raf (Raf-1) (Ser338) were from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA) ...
Glucose activates prenyltransferases in pancreatic islet beta-cells
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Koch Brandon J. et al., In Diabetes, 2009
... Antisera against H-Ras and Raf-1 were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA) ...
Membrane protein location-dependent regulation by PI3K (III) and rabenosyn-5 in Drosophila wing cells.
Supplier
Holowka David, In PLoS ONE, 2008
... Phospho-p38 MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182), -p42/44 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204), -PKC (pan) (Ser660), and -C-Raf (Ser338) antibodies were from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, Mass) ...
Essential role of B-Raf in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination during postnatal central nervous system development
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Baccarini Manuela et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 2006
... ) for epiblast-restricted Raf ablation or to transgenic mice expressing Cre under ...
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Papers on Raf
NTRK fusion oncogenes in pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma in northeast United States.
New
Nikiforov et al., Bologna, Italy. In Cancer, Feb 2016
Six of 27 PTCs (22%) had ret proto-oncogene (RET) fusions (RET/PTC1, n = 5; RET/PTC3, n = 1); 2 tumors measured >2 cm and diffusely involved the thyroid, and 5 had lymphatic invasion, with vascular invasion in 2. Thirteen PTCs had the B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) valine-to-glutamic acid mutation at position 600 (BRAF(V) (600E) ) (13 of 27 tumors; 48%), 11 measured <2 cm, and 6 had lymphatic invasion (46%), with vascular invasion in 3. Fusion oncogene tumors, compared with BRAF(V) (600E) PTCs, were associated with large size (mean, 2.2 cm vs 1.5 cm, respectively; P = .05),
Common BRAF(V600E)-directed pathway mediates widespread epigenetic silencing in colorectal cancer and melanoma.
New
Green et al., Worcester, United States. In Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Feb 2016
We have recently described an epigenetic silencing pathway, directed by the oncogenic B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) variant BRAF(V600E), that mediates widespread epigenetic silencing in colorectal cancer (CRC).
Long-Term ERK Inhibition in KRAS-Mutant Pancreatic Cancer Is Associated with MYC Degradation and Senescence-like Growth Suppression.
New
Impact
Der et al., Chapel Hill, United States. In Cancer Cell, Feb 2016
Induction of compensatory mechanisms and ERK reactivation has limited the effectiveness of Raf and MEK inhibitors in RAS-mutant cancers.
Low-Dose Radiation Induces Cell Proliferation in Human Embryonic Lung Fibroblasts but not in Lung Cancer Cells: Importance of ERK1/2 and AKT Signaling Pathways.
New
Li et al., Changchun, China. In Dose Response, Jan 2016
In 2BS cells, LDR at 20 to 75 mGy also stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK pathway proteins including ERK, MEK, and Raf and of the PI3K/AKT pathway protein AKT.
(Secondary) solid tumors in thyroid cancer patients treated with the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib may present diagnostic challenges.
New
Morreau et al., Leiden, Netherlands. In Bmc Cancer, Dec 2015
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is an orally active multikinase tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets B-type Raf kinase (BRAF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1 and 2, and rearranged during transfection (RET), inducing anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic actions in a wide range of solid tumors.
Current Therapeutic Options in Sturge-Weber Syndrome.
Review
New
Comi, Baltimore, United States. In Semin Pediatr Neurol, Dec 2015
The mutation results in constitutive overactivation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK and the HIPPO-YAP pathways and inhibitors of these pathways may in the future prove useful in the treatment of Sturge-Weber syndrome.
MEK1/2 Inhibitors: Molecular Activity and Resistance Mechanisms.
Review
New
Park et al., Milwaukee, United States. In Semin Oncol, Dec 2015
Aberrant activation of the three-layered protein kinase cascade, Raf/MEK/ERK, is often detected in human cancer, which is mainly attributed to the oncogenic alterations of RAF, or its upstream activators RAS or cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases.
Epigenetic changes and nuclear factor-κB activation, but not microRNA-224, downregulate Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein in triple-negative breast cancer SUM 159 cells.
New
Notarbartolo et al., Palermo, Italy. In Oncol Lett, Dec 2015
UNASSIGNED: Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a tumor suppressor and metastasis inhibitor, which enhances drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells.
Cardiac RKIP induces a beneficial β-adrenoceptor-dependent positive inotropy.
New
Impact
Lorenz et al., Würzburg, Germany. In Nat Med, Nov 2015
Here we show that modest overexpression of the Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), encoded by Pebp1 in mice, produces a well-tolerated, persistent increase in cardiac contractility that is mediated by the β1-adrenoceptor (β1AR).
Integrative clinical genomics of advanced prostate cancer.
New
Impact
Chinnaiyan et al., Ann Arbor, United States. In Cell, Jun 2015
We identified new genomic alterations in PIK3CA/B, R-spondin, BRAF/RAF1, APC, β-catenin, and ZBTB16/PLZF.
MEK and PI3K inhibition in solid tumors: rationale and evidence to date.
Review
New
Koivunen et al., Oulu, Finland. In Ther Adv Med Oncol, May 2015
PI3K-AKT-mTOR and Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK are the most commonly altered oncogenic pathways in solid malignancies.
A lactate-induced response to hypoxia.
New
Impact
Yeom et al., Taejŏn, South Korea. In Cell, May 2015
The stabilized NDRG3 protein binds c-Raf to mediate hypoxia-induced activation of Raf-ERK pathway, promoting angiogenesis and cell growth.
The BRAF pseudogene functions as a competitive endogenous RNA and induces lymphoma in vivo.
New
Impact
Pandolfi et al., Boston, United States. In Cell, May 2015
Here, we report that mice engineered to overexpress either the full-length murine B-Raf pseudogene Braf-rs1 or its pseudo "CDS" or "3' UTR" develop an aggressive malignancy resembling human diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Overview of fundamental study of pazopanib in cancer.
Review
Zhou et al., Tianjin, China. In Thorac Cancer, 2014
In an vitro study, pazopanib exerted anti-tumor effect through mechanisms including the Raf-MAPK/ERK (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, and directly targeted on v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (B-raf) as well.
Hepatocellular Cancer: New Kids on the Block.
Review
Gerken et al., Germany. In Gastrointest Tumors, 2014
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although many promising preclinical studies have resulted in phase I-II trials on HCC, so far only the tyrosine and Raf kinase inhibitor sorafenib has made its way into the hands of physicians.
Role of melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis (ML-IAP) protein, a member of the baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain family, in the regulation of C-RAF kinase and cell migration.
GeneRIF
Rajalingam et al., Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In J Biol Chem, 2012
unknown role for ML-IAP in controlling C-RAF stability and cell migration.
Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) dimer formation controls its target switch from Raf1 to G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 2.
GeneRIF
Lorenz et al., Würzburg, Germany. In J Biol Chem, 2012
Data show that a dimeric Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) mutant displayed a higher affinity to G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 2, but a lower affinity to Raf1.
The tumor suppressor DiRas3 forms a complex with H-Ras and C-RAF proteins and regulates localization, dimerization, and kinase activity of C-RAF.
GeneRIF
Rapp et al., Würzburg, Germany. In J Biol Chem, 2012
The consequence of complex formation is a DiRas3-mediated recruitment and anchorage of C-RAF to components of the membrane skeleton, suppression of C-RAF/B-RAF heterodimerization, and inhibition of C-RAF kinase activity.
The PP242 mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in multiple myeloma cells via a target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E)/RAF pathway and activation is a mechanism of resistance.
GeneRIF
Lichtenstein et al., Los Angeles, United States. In J Biol Chem, 2012
PP242 mTOR inhibitor activates ERK in multiple myeloma cells via a target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E)/RAF pathway and activation is a mechanism of resistance
Mouse tissues that undergo neoplastic progression after K-Ras activation are distinguished by nuclear translocation of phospho-Erk1/2 and robust tumor suppressor responses.
GeneRIF
Donehower et al., Houston, United States. In Mol Cancer Res, 2012
Data suggest that K-Ras-responsive tissues exhibit activated Ras/Raf/Erk1/2 signaling, rapidly form premalignant tumors, and activate potent antitumor responses that effectively prevent further malignant progression.
More papers using Raf antibodies
RSK4 and PAK5 are novel candidate genes in diabetic rat kidney and brain.
Supplier
Castresana Javier S., In PLoS ONE, 2004
... c-Raf transgenic mice ...
CAPRI and RASAL impose different modes of information processing on Ras due to contrasting temporal filtering of Ca2+
Supplier
Lockyer Peter J. et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 2003
... GFP-RASAL HcRed-RBD was generated by PCR using GFP-RBD (human Raf-1 residues 51–131) as a template with primers containing HindIII and BamHI overhangs for cloning into pHcRed-C1 (BD Biosciences).
High Dimensional Function Optimization using a new Genetic Local Search suitable for Parallel Computers.
Supplier
Stolovitzky Gustavo, In PLoS ONE, 2002
... Anti-EGFR receptor, anti-ErbB4 receptor, anti-Rap1, anti-Raf and anti-phosphotyrosine (PY20) antibodies were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA) ...
A method for characterising cell death in vitro by combining propidium iodide staining with immunohistochemistry
Supplier
Monyer Hannah et al., In BMC Neuroscience, 2001
... Toxin A (Calbiochem, Germany), Raf1 kinase inhibitor (Calbiochem, Germany), manumycin A (Calbiochem, Germany), rapamycin (Calbiochem, Germany), phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-P3 (PIP3,4,5) (Cayman chemical, USA), phosphatidylinositol-(3,4)-P2 (PIP3,4) ...
Raf-1 regulates Rho signaling and cell migration
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Baccarini Manuela et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 2001
... c-raf-1 allele were crossed to transgenic mice expressing the Cre ...
Bcl-2-dependent modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and store-operated channels in prostate cancer cells.
Supplier
Chandra Dhyan, In PLoS ONE, 2001
... grown in YPD (1% yeast extract, 2% bacto-peptone, and 2% glucose), 1/2 SD/Gal-Raf/-Ura or 1/2 SD/Gal-Raf/-His (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA) ...
Prohibitin-1 maintains the angiogenic capacity of endothelial cells by regulating mitochondrial function and senescence
Supplier
Sessa William C. et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1999
... The antibody against phospho-eNOS was obtained from Invitrogen and antibodies against eNOS and c-Raf were obtained from BD Biosciences.
Raf-1 activation disrupts its binding to keratins during cell stress
Supplier
Omary M. Bishr et al., In The Journal of Cell Biology, 1996
... pS621, and Erk (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.); mAb 4.62, which recognizes hK19 and anti-Flag (Sigma-Aldrich); Raf pS338 (Upstate Biotechnology); pERK (Cell Signaling).
CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) is required for degranulation of human eosinophils induced by human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and platelet-activating factor
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Alam Rafeul et al., In The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1993
... Rabbit polyclonal anti-MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2, anti-Jak2, anti-Lyn, and anti–Raf-1 antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology ...
The mechanism of activation of protein kinase C: a biophysical perspective
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Suzuki Toshiyasu et al., In Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica, 1991
... Anti-Raf antibody and anti-PKC antibody (α, βI, βII, γ, θ, δ, ɛ, η, ζ, µ) were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc ...
Computed tomographic assessment of radiation induced damage in the lung of normal and WR 2721 protected LAF1 mice
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Muñoz-Barrutia Arrate, In PLoS ONE, 1985
... 14 C57BL/6 mice (4 nontransgenic, 4 SPC-raf transgenic, 6 SPC-myc transgenic) were examined ...
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