Cumulus cell-conditioned medium supports embryonic stem cell differentiation to germ cell-like cells.
In Reprod Fertil Dev, Dec 2015
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that 20%-40% CCM induced the highest expression of primordial germ cell-specific (deleted in Azoospermia- like (Dazl), dead (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 4 (Vasa also known as DDX4) and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (Plzf)); meiotic (synaptonemal complex protein 3 (Sycp3), mutl homolog I (Mlh1), transition protein 1/2 (Tnp1/2) and protamine 2 (Prm2); spermatocyte-specific boule-like RNA binding protein (Boule) and tektin 1 (Tekt1)) and oocyte-specific growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) and zona pellucida 2 /3 (Zp2/3)) genes over 8-14 days in culture.
The developmental stages of synaptic plasticity.
Amsterdam, Netherlands. In J Physiol, 2014
First we summarize the current data on the structure of synapses and the developmental expression patterns of the key molecular players of synaptic plasticity, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, as well as pivotal kinases (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, protein kinase A, protein kinase C) and phosphatases (PP1, PP2A, PP2B).
Oligomeric Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.
Los Angeles, United States. In Mol Neurodegener, 2013
Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction is dependent on overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) resulting in aberrant activation of redox-mediated events as well as elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, which in turn triggers downstream pathways involving phospho-tau (p-tau), caspases, Cdk5/dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), calcineurin/PP2B, PP2A, Gsk-3β, Fyn, cofilin, and CaMKII and causes endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) as well as NMDARs.
Supramolecular assemblies and localized regulation of voltage-gated ion channels.
Iowa City, United States. In Physiol Rev, 2009
The type 2 ryanodine receptor as well as AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors are in close proximity to Cav1.2 in cardiomyocytes and neurons, respectively, yet independently anchor PKA, CaMKII, and the serine/threonine phosphatases PP1, PP2A, and PP2B, as is discussed in detail.