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Peptidyl arginine deiminase, type II

PAD2, cad2, PdI2
This gene encodes a member of the peptidyl arginine deiminase family of enzymes, which catalyze the post-translational deimination of proteins by converting arginine residues into citrullines in the presence of calcium ions. The family members have distinct substrate specificities and tissue-specific expression patterns. The type II enzyme is the most widely expressed family member. Known substrates for this enzyme include myelin basic protein in the central nervous system and vimentin in skeletal muscle and macrophages. This enzyme is thought to play a role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative human disorders, including Alzheimer disease and multiple sclerosis, and it has also been implicated in glaucoma pathogenesis. This gene exists in a cluster with four other paralogous genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: ACID, CAN, OUT, Cdx1, V1a
Papers on PAD2
Low glutathione redox state couples with a decreased ascorbate redox ratio to accelerate flowering in Oncidium orchid.
Yeh et al., Taipei, Taiwan. In Plant Cell Physiol, Feb 2016
Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing Oncidium GSH1, GSH2, and GR1 displayed high GSH redox ratio as well as delayed flowering under high ambient temperature treatment, while pad2 and cad2, and gr1 mutants exhibited early flowering and low GSH redox ratio.
Identification of an immunodominant peptide from citrullinated tenascin-C as a major target for autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.
Midwood et al., Stockholm, Sweden. In Ann Rheum Dis, Jan 2016
RESULTS: Nine arginine residues within FBG were citrullinated by PAD2 and PAD4.
Release of Active Peptidyl Arginine Deiminases by Neutrophils Can Explain Production of Extracellular Citrullinated Autoantigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluid.
Scheel-Toellner et al., Stockholm, Sweden. In Arthritis Rheumatol, Dec 2015
PAD2 and PAD4 protein expression, as well as PAD enzymatic activity, were assessed in the SF of patients with RA and those with OA.
Glutathione Regulates 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase Transcription via WRKY33 and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase by Modulating Messenger RNA Stability to Induce Ethylene Synthesis during Stress.
Chattopadhyay et al., Calcutta, India. In Plant Physiol, Dec 2015
Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with enhanced GSH content (AtECS) exhibited remarkable up-regulation of ACS2, ACS6, and ACO1 at transcript as well as protein levels, while they were down-regulated in the GSH-depleted phytoalexin deficient2-1 (pad2-1) mutant.
Mass spectrometric identification of citrullination sites and immunohistochemical detection of citrullinated glial fibrillary acidic protein in Alzheimer's disease brains.
Toda et al., Tokyo, Japan. In J Neurosci Res, Nov 2015
Previously, we reported the abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and the increase in the amount of PAD2 in hippocampi from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.
Glutathione plays an essential role in nitric oxide-mediated iron-deficiency signaling and iron-deficiency tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Yeh et al., Taipei, Taiwan. In Plant J, Nov 2015
Under Fe-limited conditions, glutathione-deficient mutants, zir1, pad2 and cad2 accumulated lower levels of Fe than the wild type.
Fluoride-free Hiyama coupling by palladium abnormal N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.
Ghosh et al., Mumbai, India. In Dalton Trans, Nov 2015
A series of palladium complexes of the abnormal N-heterocyclic carbene ligands of the type (a-NHC)PdI2(L) [L = NC5H5(1-3)b and PPh3(1-3)c] effectively catalyzed the Hiyama coupling of aryl bromides and iodides with PhSi(OMe)3 under the highly desired fluoride-free conditions.
Overaccumulation of γ-Glutamylcysteine in a Jasmonate-Hypersensitive Arabidopsis Mutant Causes Jasmonate-Dependent Growth Inhibition.
Staswick et al., Yokohama, Japan. In Plant Physiol, Oct 2015
The level of GSH in jah2 was 71% of the wild type, while the phytoalexin-deficient2-1 (pad2-1) mutant, defective in GSH1 and having only 27% of wild-type GSH level, was not jasmonate hypersensitive.
Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).
Liu et al., Beibei, China. In Plos One, 2014
The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively.
Inflammatory but not apoptotic death of granulocytes citrullinates fibrinogen.
Orange et al., New York City, United States. In Arthritis Res Ther, 2014
Differentiation was confirmed by CD11b staining, PAD4, PAD2 and myeloperoxidase expression, cell division, and nuclear morphology.
Lessons to be learned from periodontitis.
Brouwer et al., Groningen, Netherlands. In Curr Opin Rheumatol, 2013
As a result, citrullinated proteins and P. gingivalis PAD, PAD2 and PAD4 (expressed by infiltrating neutrophils) are found in periodontal tissues.
Peptidylarginine deiminase and protein citrullination in prion diseases: strong evidence of neurodegeneration.
Choi et al., Anyang, South Korea. In Prion, 2013
We previously demonstrated that the upregulation of PAD2, mainly found in reactive astrocytes of infected brains, leads to excessive citrullination, which is correlated with disease progression.
Peptidylarginine deiminase 2-catalyzed histone H3 arginine 26 citrullination facilitates estrogen receptor α target gene activation.
Coonrod et al., Ithaca, United States. In Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012
17beta-estradiol stimulation induces the recruitment of PAD2 to target promoters by ERalpha, whereby PAD2 then citrullinates H3R26, which leads to local chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activation.
Overexpression of GSH1 gene mimics transcriptional response to low temperature during seed vernalization treatment of Arabidopsis.
Ogawa et al., Okayama, Japan. In Plant Cell Physiol, 2012
Glutathione is a key regulator of GSH1 gene expression in response to low temperature.
Methylation-dependent PAD2 upregulation in multiple sclerosis peripheral blood.
Caiafa et al., Roma, Italy. In Mult Scler, 2012
Defective regulation of PAD2 in the periphery blood, without the immunological shelter of the blood-brain barrier, may contribute to the development of the autoimmune responses in MS.
ZINC TOLERANCE INDUCED BY IRON 1 reveals the importance of glutathione in the cross-homeostasis between zinc and iron in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Yeh et al., Taipei, Taiwan. In Plant J, 2012
GSH1 is involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. The zir1 mutant is defective in Fe-mediated Zn tolerance.
Role of glutathione in plant signaling under biotic stress.
Poinssot et al., Dijon, France. In Plant Signal Behav, 2012
We first discovered that the Arabidopsis thaliana phytoalexin deficient 2-1 (pad2-1) mutant was linked to glutathione deficiency since the mutation was identified in the GSH1 gene encoding the first enzyme of glutathione biosynthesis: Glutamate Cysteine Ligase (GCL).
Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 is over expressed in the glaucomatous optic nerve.
Serra et al., Córdoba, Argentina. In Mol Vis, 2009
This is the first report demonstrating that like in primary open angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma also possesses elevated levels of both PAD2 and protein-bound citrulline.
Retinal deimination in aging and disease.
Bhattacharya, Miami, United States. In Iubmb Life, 2009
In the retina, deimination is predominantly catalyzed by Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 (PAD2).
[Phytochelatin and its function in heavy metal tolerance of higher plants].
Zhang et al., Hangzhou, China. In Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 2003
The isolation of Cd-sensitive cad1 and cad2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, that was deficient in PC, demonstrted the importance of PC for heavy metal tolerance.
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