Osteocalcin as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism.
Japan. In World J Diabetes, Jan 2016
Accumulating evidence has shown that osteocalcin, which is specifically expressed in osteoblasts and secreted into the circulation, regulates glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin expression in pancreas and adiponectin expression in adipocytes, resulting in improving glucose intolerance.
Bone Regulates Glucose Metabolism as an Endocrine Organ through Osteocalcin.
Shanghai, China. In Int J Endocrinol, 2014
Besides osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin (SOST), and Dickopf (DKK) which play essential roles in bone formation, modelling, remodelling, and homeostasis, bone can also secret hormones, such as osteocalcin (OCN), which promotes proliferation of β cells, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity.
Maternal and offspring pools of osteocalcin influence brain development and functions.
New York City, United States. In Cell, 2013
We show here that the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin crosses the blood-brain barrier, binds to neurons of the brainstem, midbrain, and hippocampus, enhances the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters, inhibits GABA synthesis, prevents anxiety and depression, and favors learning and memory independently of its metabolic functions.