Genetics of Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.
In Endocr Dev, Dec 2015
Also, discovery of mutations in KISS1/KISS1R and TAC3/TACR3 in kisspeptin and neurokinin B signaling, respectively, has provided major advancements in our understanding of the biology of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator.
Physiology of Gnrh and Gonadotropin Secretion
Madagascar. In Unknown Journal, Aug 2015
Translational clinical studies, exploring kisspeptin and neurokinin B activity in various physiological and pathological states are pivotal to potential clinical applications for these novel neuropeptides and their agonists as well as antagonists.
Neuromedin U: a multifunctional neuropeptide with pleiotropic roles.
Dublin, Ireland. In Clin Chem, Mar 2015
BACKGROUND: Neuromedin U (NmU) belongs to the neuromedin family, comprising a series of neuropeptides involved in the gut-brain axis and including neuromedins B and C (bombesin-like), K (neurokinin B), L (neurokinin A or neurotensin), N, S, and U. CONTENT: Although initially isolated from porcine spinal cord on the basis of their ability to induce uterine smooth muscle contraction, these peptides have now been found to be expressed in several different tissues and have been ascribed numerous functions, from appetite regulation and energy balance control to muscle contraction and tumor progression.
The neurobiology of preovulatory and estradiol-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone surges.
Charlottesville, United States. In Endocr Rev, 2010
Here we review the current knowledge of the neurobiology of the GnRH surge, in particular the actions of estradiol on GnRH neurons and their synaptic afferents, the regulation of GnRH neurons by fast synaptic transmission mediated by the neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate, and the host of excitatory and inhibitory neuromodulators including kisspeptin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, catecholamines, neurokinin B, and RFamide-related peptides, that appear essential for GnRH surge regulation, and ultimately ovulation and fertility.
Kisspeptin signaling in the brain.
Seattle, United States. In Endocr Rev, 2009
Kisspeptin neurons are sexually differentiated with respect to cell number and transcriptional activity in certain brain nuclei, and some kisspeptin neurons express other cotransmitters, including dynorphin and neurokinin B (whose physiological significance is unknown).