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Lymphocyte antigen 96

MD-2, Lymphocyte Antigen 96
This gene encodes a protein which associates with toll-like receptor 4 on the cell surface and confers responsiveness to lipopolysaccyaride (LPS), thus providing a link between the receptor and LPS signaling. Studies of the mouse ortholog suggest that this gene may be involved in endotoxin neutralization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: TLR4, CD14, TLR2, CAN, V1a
Papers using MD-2 antibodies
Tobacco smoke suppresses T cells but not antigen-presenting cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes.
Neyrolles Olivier, In PLoS ONE, 1989
... Functional Grade Purified anti-mouse Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2 (Clone: MTS510 0) and isotype control (Rat IgG2a, κ) were purchased from ebioscience (San Diego, CA, USA) ...
Papers on MD-2
Therapeutic Developments Targeting Toll-like Receptor-4-Mediated Neuroinflammation.
Yin et al., Beijing, China. In Chemmedchem, Jan 2016
Activation of TLRs requires participation from specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and accessory proteins such as myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and cluster differentiation antigen 14 (CD14).
Saturated fatty acids trigger TLR4-mediated inflammatory response.
Hermsdorff et al., Viçosa, Brazil. In Atherosclerosis, Jan 2016
Thus, our present review provides a new perspective on the potential mechanism by which SFAs could modulate TLR4-induced inflammatory responses: (1) SFAs can be recognized by CD14-TLR4-MD2 complex and trigger inflammatory pathways, similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Chemical Hybridization of Vizantin and Lipid A to Generate a Novel LPS Antagonist.
Imagawa et al., Tokushima, Japan. In Chem Pharm Bull (tokyo), Jan 2016
Our recent study indicated that vizantin displays adjuvant activity by specifically binding to the TLR4/MD2 protein complex.
Changes in endometrial transcription of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 during the first-week postpartum in dairy cows with retained placenta.
Borges et al., Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In Theriogenology, Jan 2016
All cows had endometrial transcription of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1/6, 2, 4, 5, and 9; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors 1 and 2; and the coreceptors cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2), as measured on the first and seventh days postpartum.
piggyBac transposons expressing full-length human dystrophin enable genetic correction of dystrophic mesoangioblasts.
Chuah et al., Leuven, Belgium. In Nucleic Acids Res, Jan 2016
We developed a novel gene therapy approach based on the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to deliver the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of either full-length human dystrophin (DYS: 11.1 kb) or truncated microdystrophins (MD1: 3.6 kb; MD2: 4 kb).
The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.
Yu et al., Fuzhou, China. In Nat Genet, Dec 2015
We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5.
Mechanisms of Toll-like Receptor 4 Endocytosis Reveal a Common Immune-Evasion Strategy Used by Pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria.
Kagan et al., Boston, United States. In Immunity, Dec 2015
Mechanistically, the extracellular protein MD-2 bound to and dimerized TLR4 in order to promote this endocytic event.
[Potency Material Bases of Xuebijing Formula and Its Multi-target Effects on Sepsis].
Xiong et al., In Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, Nov 2015
Meanwhile, different components acted on the same target protein, for example, 8 molecules acted with MD-2.
Immuno-Stimulatory Activity of Escherichia coli Mutants Producing Kdo2-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A or Kdo2-Pentaacyl-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A.
Wang et al., Wuxi, China. In Plos One, 2014
Structural changes of LPS in the outer membranes of HWB01 and HWB02 increased their membrane permeability, surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation ability and sensitivity to some antibiotics, but the abilities of these strains to activate the TLR4/MD-2 receptor of HKE-Blue hTLR4 cells were deceased.
Drug Targeting Based on a New Concept-Targeting Against TLR4 as an Example.
Gusovsky et al., Tokyo, Japan. In Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets, 2014
In this manuscript, in order to make a novel molecular design to disrupt an interaction between TLR4/MD-2 and endogenous ligands, we provide a potential binding style of the TLR4/MD-2 complex with HMGB1 by using their 3D structural data and docking simulations, and also discuss S100A8 binding to TLR4/MD-2.
Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors as nutritional activators of innate immunity.
Zevallos et al., Mainz, Germany. In Dig Dis, 2014
ATIs bind to and activate the CD14-MD2 toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex.
Modulation of toll-like receptor 4. Insights from x-ray crystallography and molecular modeling.
Martín-Santamaria et al., Madrid, Spain. In Curr Top Med Chem, 2013
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), along with its accessory protein myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2), builds a heterodimeric complex that specifically recognizes lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are present on the cell wall of gramnegative bacteria, activating the immune response.
Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) triggers inflammatory responses in hemorrhagic shock and sepsis.
Wang et al., New York City, United States. In Nat Med, 2013
The activity of extracellular CIRP is mediated through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) complex.
The TLR4 antagonist Eritoran protects mice from lethal influenza infection.
Vogel et al., Baltimore, United States. In Nature, 2013
CD14 and TLR2 are also required for Eritoran-mediated protection, and CD14 directly binds Eritoran and inhibits ligand binding to MD2.
Effect of eritoran, an antagonist of MD2-TLR4, on mortality in patients with severe sepsis: the ACCESS randomized trial.
ACCESS Study Group et al., Providence, United States. In Jama, 2013
IMPORTANCE: Eritoran is a synthetic lipid A antagonist that blocks lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from binding at the cell surface MD2-TLR4 receptor.
Glycyrrhizin and isoliquiritigenin suppress the LPS sensor toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex signaling in a different manner.
Takatsu et al., Toyama, Japan. In J Leukoc Biol, 2012
GL and ILG modulate the TLR4/MD-2 complex at the receptor level, leading to suppress LPS-induced activation of signaling cascades and cytokine production
NMR studies of hexaacylated endotoxin bound to wild-type and F126A mutant MD-2 and MD-2·TLR4 ectodomain complexes.
Gioannini et al., Iowa City, United States. In J Biol Chem, 2012
In LOS.MD-2 complexes, one of the six fatty acyl chains of LOS is more susceptible to paramagnetic attenuation, suggesting protrusion of that fatty acyl chain from the hydrophobic pocket of MD-2, independent of association with TLR4.
Structural basis of species-specific endotoxin sensing by innate immune receptor TLR4/MD-2.
Shimizu et al., Tokyo, Japan. In Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012
Data provide structural evidence of the agonistic property of lipid IVa on TLR4/MD-2 and deepen understanding of the ligand binding and dimerization mechanism by the structurally diverse Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) variants.
Morphine activates neuroinflammation in a manner parallel to endotoxin.
Yin et al., Boulder, United States. In Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012
Data show that morphine binds to an accessory protein of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), thereby inducing TLR4 oligomerization and triggering proinflammation.
Respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is inhibited by the TLR4 antagonists Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipopolysaccharide and eritoran (E5564) and requires direct interaction with MD-2.
Blanco et al., Baltimore, United States. In Mbio, 2011
Respiratory syncytial virus F protein requires MD-2 for the induction of the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response.
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