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Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, short cytoplasmic tail, 4
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several "framework" genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to transduce activating signals. The ligands for several KIR proteins are subsets of HLA class I molecules; thus, KIR proteins are thought to play an important role in regulation of the immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes associated with different risks for HIV acquisition and HIV disease progression.
Mahfouz et al., Beirut, Lebanon. In Meta Gene, 2014
CONCLUSION: The interesting observation of the significant presence of KIR2DS4 and KIR2DS5 genes more among multiple myeloma patients than controls is worth further clinical, translational as well as survival research studies in these cases.
The results of our meta-analysis show statistical significance between the genetic variations in the KIR2DL1, KIR2DS4, KIR2DS5 and KIR3DS1 genes and an increased susceptibility to AS (KIR2DL1: OR 7.82, 95% CI 3.87-15.81,
Zaia et al., Duarte, United States. In Biol Blood Marrow Transplant, 2011
The CMV seropositivity of donors was not associated with activating KIR expression, and donor null expression in those with the KIR2DS2 or KIR2DS4 genotype was not predictive for CMV reactivation in the recipient.
Dolstra et al., Nijmegen, Netherlands. In Exp Hematol, 2011
Data indicate that the increased frequency of CD8(+) effector-memory T cells with activating NKR KIR2DS4, NKG2C and NKG2D, and cytotoxicity toward hematopoietic cell lines suggests involvement in bone marrow failure and clonal expansion in PNH.
Kaslow et al., Birmingham, United States. In J Infect Dis, 2011
KIR2DS4*001, the only allele of KIR2DS4 known to encode a functional activating receptor, was associated with relatively high viral load for HIV-1 and with accelerated transmission of HIV-1 to cohabiting seronegative partners.