A Single Peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex Ligand Triggers Digital Cytokine Secretion in CD4(+) T Cells.
Stanford, United States. In Immunity, 14 Dec 2013
We found that naive T cells, T cell blasts, and memory T cells could all be triggered by a single pMHC to secrete tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) cytokines with a rate of ∼1,000, ∼10,000, and ∼10,000 molecules/min, respectively, and that additional pMHCs did not augment secretion, indicating a digital response pattern.
Cellular immune correlates of protection against symptomatic pandemic influenza.
London, United Kingdom. In Nat Med, 31 Oct 2013
Higher frequencies of pre-existing T cells to conserved CD8 epitopes were found in individuals who developed less severe illness, with total symptom score having the strongest inverse correlation with the frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)(+) interleukin-2 (IL-2)(-) CD8(+) T cells (r = -0.6,
T cell regulation of natural killer cells.
Marseille, France. In J Exp Med, Jul 2013
New studies now indicate that NK cell proliferation, accumulation, and activation are also under the control of regulatory T cells that restrict availability of IL-2 released by activated CD4(+) T cells.
[Mesenchymal stem cells as an antitumor therapy tool].
In Mol Biol (mosk), Jan 2013
At present, genes encoding enzymes (cytosine deaminase, thymidine kinase, carboxyl esterase), cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IFN-beta) and apoptosis inducing factors (TRAIL) are used as therapeutic genes.
Current state of renal transplant immunosuppression: Present and future.
More papers using
Pittsburgh, United States. In World J Transplant, Sep 2012
Many medical centers use a sequential immunosuppression regimen where an induction agent, either an anti-thymocyte globulin or interleukin-2 receptor antibody, is given at the time of transplantation to prevent early acute rejection which is then followed by a triple immunosuppressive maintenance regimen.
Distinct mechanisms of entry by envelope glycoproteins of Marburg and Ebola (Zaire) viruses.
In PLoS ONE, 1999
... (BioWhittaker, Verviers, Belgium) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (PAA Laboratories, Vienna, Austria), 10 U/ml IL-2 (National Institutes of Health, AIDS Repository), 2 mM L-glutamine (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Paisley, Scotland), and 1% ...