Peripheral Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 Activation Increases Colonic Blood Flow Through Nitric Oxide Pathway in Rats.
Los Angeles, United States. In Dig Dis Sci, 21 Mar 2015
The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, L-NAME (3 mg/kg, iv), the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (Indo, 5 mg/kg, ip), or selective CRF2 antagonist, astressin2-B (Ast2B, 50 µg/kg, iv) was given before SVG injection (10 µg/kg, iv).
Immune checkpoint modulation: Rational design of combination strategies.
New York City, United States. In Pharmacol Ther, 09 Feb 2015
These include: 1) modalities that enhance antigen presentation, such as radiation, cryotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted agents, vaccines, toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, type I interferon, and oncolytic viruses; 2) additional agents aiming to reverse T cell dysfunction, such as other immune checkpoint inhibitors; and 3) agents targeting other immune inhibitory mechanisms, such as inhibitors of indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO), regulatory T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC).
Neuroinflammation and comorbidity of pain and depression.
Houston, United States. In Pharmacol Rev, 2013
These mechanisms include direct effects of cytokines on the neuronal environment or indirect effects via downregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, activation of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase that generates neurotropic kynurenine metabolites, increased brain extracellular glutamate, and the switch of GABAergic neurotransmission from inhibition to excitation.
Highlights of 10 years of immunology in Nature Reviews Immunology.
New Haven, United States. In Nat Rev Immunol, 2011
Highlights include our improved understanding of Toll-like receptor signalling, and of immune regulation mediated by regulatory T cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and interleukin-10.