Tumoral Immune Resistance Mediated by Enzymes That Degrade Tryptophan.
Brussels, Belgium. In Cancer Immunol Res, Sep 2015
In view of recent observations, and taking into account the differences between human and mouse data that differ in several aspects, in this Cancer Immunology at the Crossroads article, we discuss the role of the three enzymes that have been proposed to control tryptophan catabolism in tumoral immune resistance: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2).
Signaling Circuits and Regulation of Immune Suppression by Ovarian Tumor-Associated Macrophages.
Little Rock, United States. In Vaccines (basel), Dec 2014
This review provides an appraisal of some of the key signaling pathways that may contribute to immune suppression in ovarian cancer, with a particular focus on the potential involvement of the c-KIT/PI3K/AKT, wnt/β-catenin, IL-6/STAT3 and AhR signaling pathways in regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in tumor-associated macrophages.
Tryptophan Catabolism in Chronic Viral Infections: Handling Uninvited Guests.
Montréal, Canada. In Int J Tryptophan Res, Dec 2014
l-Tryptophan (l-Trp) is an essential amino acid that possesses diverse metabolic, neurological, and immunological roles spanning from the synthesis of proteins, neurotransmitter serotonin, and neurohormone melatonin, to its degradation into immunosuppressive catabolites by indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the kynurenine pathway (KP).
The role of inflammation in schizophrenia.
München, Germany. In Front Neurosci, Dec 2014
The activated immune system in turn activates the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) of the tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism which influences the serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission via neuroactive metabolites such as kynurenic acid.
T-cell activation or tolerization: the Yin and Yang of bacterial superantigens.
Heidelberg, Germany. In Front Microbiol, Dec 2014
We show here that not only the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the co-inhibitory surface molecule PD-L1 (CD274) but also inhibitory effector systems like indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) or intracellular negative feedback loops (suppressor of cytokine signaling molecules, SOCS) are induced by SAgs.
Neuroinflammation and comorbidity of pain and depression.
Houston, United States. In Pharmacol Rev, 2013
These mechanisms include direct effects of cytokines on the neuronal environment or indirect effects via downregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, activation of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase that generates neurotropic kynurenine metabolites, increased brain extracellular glutamate, and the switch of GABAergic neurotransmission from inhibition to excitation.
Highlights of 10 years of immunology in Nature Reviews Immunology.
New Haven, United States. In Nat Rev Immunol, 2011
Highlights include our improved understanding of Toll-like receptor signalling, and of immune regulation mediated by regulatory T cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and interleukin-10.