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GoPubMed Proteins lists recent and important papers and reviews for proteins. Page last changed on 16 Apr 2015.

Interleukin 21

IL-21, IL-22, Interleukin-21, interleukin-22
This gene encodes a member of the common-gamma chain family of cytokines with immunoregulatory activity. The encoded protein plays a role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing the differentiation, proliferation and activity of multiple target cells including macrophages, natural killer cells, B cells and cytotoxic T cells. Dysregulation of this gene plays a role in multiple immune-mediated diseases including lupus, psoriasis and chronic inflammatory diseases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: IL-17, CD4, Interleukin-6, CAN, IL-10
Papers using IL-21 antibodies
The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets.
Supplier
Sandberg Johan K., In PLoS ONE, 2000
... IL-7, IL-4, IL-9; 50 ug/mL IL-12, 0.25 mg/mL IL-18 (all from R&D Systems); 100 ug/mL IL-21 (Miltenyi Biotec), 5 ug/mL IL-15 (PeproTech), 100 ...
Modulation of flagellar expression in Escherichia coli by acetyl phosphate and the osmoregulator OmpR.
Supplier
Masucci Maria G., In PLoS ONE, 1994
... Cells were stimulated with human recombinant IL-22 (Cell Signaling Technologies) for the indicated ...
Papers on IL-21
Smoking worsens multiple sclerosis prognosis: Two different pathways are involved.
New
Farez et al., Argentina. In J Neuroimmunol, 15 May 2015
Additionally, both degree of expression and renin-angiotensin system activity levels were increased in MS patients who smoked, inducing increase in IL-17 and IL-22-producing cell numbers as well as significantly greater production of CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL10 chemokines by monocytes.
B-cell-associated immune profiles in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
New
Choi et al., Seoul, South Korea. In Scand J Gastroenterol, 10 May 2015
B-cell-associated cytokines (IL-10, IL-21 and IL-4) were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology.
New
Impact
van den Brink et al., In Annu Rev Immunol, 21 Apr 2015
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T helper (Th) 17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells, and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).
Advances in IL-21 biology-enhancing our understanding of human disease.
Review
New
Tangye, Australia. In Curr Opin Immunol, 19 Apr 2015
However, recent discoveries of loss-of function mutations in IL21 or IL21R in humans have unveiled unexpected roles for IL-21 in immune regulation.
The biological functions of IL-17 in different clinical expressions of H. pylori-infection.
Review
New
Razavi et al., Tehrān, Iran. In Microb Pathog, 12 Apr 2015
IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TGF-β1, IL-17, IL-18, IL-21 and IL-22 have been reported to be involved in H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal inflammation, but the details and relation to different patterns of inflammation remain unclear.
Novel therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis.
Review
New
van den Berg et al., Nijmegen, Netherlands. In Trends Pharmacol Sci, 27 Mar 2015
Here, we discuss two pathways that are regarded as interesting novel therapeutic targets in the field of rheumatology: the Janus kinase (JAK) pathway and the T helper-17 (Th17) pathway [including interleukin (IL)-17, IL-21, IL-22, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)].
Recent advances in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis: Genetic background, barrier function, and therapeutic targets.
Review
New
Sugaya et al., Tokyo, Japan. In J Dermatol Sci, 25 Mar 2015
Although clinical pictures of these two diseases are quite different, they share some common pathological backgrounds such as barrier dysfunction and enhanced IL-22 expression.
Interleukin-22 induces interleukin-18 expression from epithelial cells during intestinal infection.
New
Impact
Ouyang et al., Berlin, Germany. In Immunity, 17 Mar 2015
We show here that attenuated ileitis observed in interleukin-22 (IL-22)-deficient mice was associated with reduced production of Th1-cell-promoting IL-18.
Human RORγt(+)CD34(+) cells are lineage-specified progenitors of group 3 RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells.
New
Impact
Romagnani et al., Genova, Italy. In Immunity, Jan 2015
Thus, we demonstrate that in humans RORγt(+)CD34(+) cells are lineage-specified progenitors of IL-22(+) ILC3s and propose that tonsils and intestinal LP, which are enriched both in committed precursors and mature ILC3s, might represent preferential sites of ILC3 lineage differentiation.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Reciprocally Regulate IL-22 and IL-17 Cytokines in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Both Healthy and Asthmatic Subjects.
New
Tsicopoulos et al., Lille, France. In Plos One, Dec 2014
These cells produce IL17A and IL-22, which allow neutrophil recruitment, airway smooth muscle proliferation and tissue repair and remodeling.
IL-6-mediated environmental conditioning of defective Th1 differentiation dampens antitumour immune responses in old age.
New
Nishimura et al., Kumamoto, Japan. In Nat Commun, Dec 2014
Furthermore, IL-6-stimulated production of IL-4/IL-21 through c-Maf induction is responsible for impaired Th1 differentiation.
Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells.
Review
New
Ahmed et al., Atlanta, United States. In Front Immunol, Dec 2014
This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules.
Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation.
New
Li et al., Ningbo, China. In Mediators Inflamm, Dec 2014
IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22.
The chemokine receptor CXCR6 controls the functional topography of interleukin-22 producing intestinal innate lymphoid cells.
New
Impact
Di Santo et al., Paris, France. In Immunity, Dec 2014
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a critical role in mucosal defense, although the molecular mechanisms that ensure IL-22 tissue distribution remain poorly understood.
Inflammation versus host defense in obesity.
New
Impact
Ballantyne et al., Houston, United States. In Cell Metab, Dec 2014
(2014) report that immune cells from obese mice have decreased production of IL-22, a cytokine involved in immune responses and inflammation, and reveal therapeutic effects of exogenous IL-22 against obesity-linked metabolic dysfunctions.
Interleukin-22 protects intestinal stem cells from immune-mediated tissue damage and regulates sensitivity to graft versus host disease.
Impact
GeneRIF
van den Brink et al., New York City, United States. In Immunity, 2012
IL-22 as a critical regulator of tissue sensitivity to GVHD and a protective factor for intestinal stem cells during inflammatory intestinal damage.
Preparation and characterization of mouse IL-22 and its four single-amino-acid muteins that act as IL-22 receptor-1 antagonists.
GeneRIF
Gertler et al., Israel. In Protein Eng Des Sel, 2012
Recombinant mouse il-22 (mIL-22) and its variants were expressed in E coli, refolded and purified.The binding of IL-22 and its four muteins to immobilized mIL-22 receptor alpha1 extracellular domain (mIL-22 Ralpha1-ECD) exhibited similar affinity.
NK1.1+ cells and IL-22 regulate vaccine-induced protective immunity against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
GeneRIF
Vankayalapati et al., Tyler, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
IL-22, produced by NK1.1-expressing cells, induces optimal protective immunity through enhancing antigen-specific T cell responses after challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
IL-21 promotes lupus-like disease in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4 T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.
GeneRIF
Rus et al., Baltimore, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
IL-21 promotes autoimmunity in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4+ T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.
Activated and resting regulatory T cell exhaustion concurs with high levels of interleukin-22 expression in systemic sclerosis lesions.
GeneRIF
Gorochov et al., Paris, France. In Ann Rheum Dis, 2012
Systemic sclerosis pathogenesis does not appear to be linked to IL-17-, but rather to IL-22-producing cells with skin-homing potential and a concomitant quantitative Treg defect.
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