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GoPubMed Proteins lists recent and important papers and reviews for proteins. Page last changed on 30 Oct 2014.

Interleukin 21

IL-21, IL-22, Interleukin-21, interleukin-22
This gene encodes a member of the common-gamma chain family of cytokines with immunoregulatory activity. The encoded protein plays a role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing the differentiation, proliferation and activity of multiple target cells including macrophages, natural killer cells, B cells and cytotoxic T cells. Dysregulation of this gene plays a role in multiple immune-mediated diseases including lupus, psoriasis and chronic inflammatory diseases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: IL-17, CD4, Interleukin-6, CAN, IL-10
Papers using IL-21 antibodies
The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets.
Supplier
Sandberg Johan K., In PLoS ONE, 2000
... IL-7, IL-4, IL-9; 50 ug/mL IL-12, 0.25 mg/mL IL-18 (all from R&D Systems); 100 ug/mL IL-21 (Miltenyi Biotec), 5 ug/mL IL-15 (PeproTech), 100 ...
Modulation of flagellar expression in Escherichia coli by acetyl phosphate and the osmoregulator OmpR.
Supplier
Masucci Maria G., In PLoS ONE, 1994
... Cells were stimulated with human recombinant IL-22 (Cell Signaling Technologies) for the indicated ...
Papers on IL-21
Therapeutic activity of multiple common gamma chain cytokine inhibition in acute and chronic GvHD.
New
Zeiser et al., Freiburg, Germany. In Blood, 28 Nov 2014
UNLABELLED: The common gamma chain (CD132) is a subunit of the interleukin (IL) receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21.
Interleukin-21 suppresses the differentiation and functions of T helper 2 cells.
New
Chuang et al., Taipei, Taiwan. In Immunology, 28 Nov 2014
IL-21 reduces allergic symptoms in murine models and inhibits IL-4-induced IgE secretion by B cells.
Amniotic Membrane Mesenchymal Cells-Derived Factors Skew T Cell Polarization Toward Treg and Downregulate Th1 and Th17 Cells Subsets.
New
Parolini et al., Brescia, Italy. In Stem Cell Rev, 28 Nov 2014
T-cell subset modulation was substantiated through the analysis of cytokine release for 6 days during co-culture with alloreactive T-cells, whereby we observed a decrease in specific subset-related cytokines, such as a decrease in pro-inflammatory, Th1-related (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-1β), Th2 (IL-5, IL-6), Th9 (IL-9), and Th17 (IL-17A, IL-22).
Circulating T follicular regulatory and helper cells have memory-like properties.
New
Sharpe et al., In J Clin Invest, 27 Nov 2014
Effector LN Tfr cells suppressed Tfh cell activation and production of cytokines, including IL-21, and inhibited class switch recombination and B cell activation.
A GRHL3-regulated repair pathway suppresses immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia.
New
Andersen et al., In J Clin Invest, 27 Nov 2014
Using an imiquimod-induced model of immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, we found that mice lacking GRHL3 have an exacerbated epidermal damage response, greater sensitivity to disease induction, delayed resolution of epidermal lesions, and resistance to anti-IL-22 therapy compared with WT animals.
Interleukin-22 alleviates metabolic disorders and restores mucosal immunity in diabetes.
New
Impact
Ouyang et al., San Francisco, United States. In Nature, 09 Nov 2014
Here we investigate the connection between IL-22 and metabolic disorders.
Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host-commensal symbiosis in sickness.
New
Impact
Chervonsky et al., Chicago, United States. In Nature, 01 Nov 2014
Here we show that systemic exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands causes rapid α(1,2)-fucosylation of small intestine epithelial cells (IECs) in mice, which requires the sensing of TLR agonists, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-23 by dendritic cells, activation of innate lymphoid cells and expression of fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2) by IL-22-stimulated IECs.
New advances in molecular mechanisms and emerging therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver diseases.
Review
New
Ding et al., Kansas City, United States. In World J Gastroenterol, 28 Oct 2014
In addition, we summarize emerging adaptive protective effects induced by alcohol to attenuate alcohol-induced liver pathogenesis including FoxO3, IL-22, autophagy and nuclear lipin-1α.
Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation.
New
Impact
Kiyono et al., Tokyo, Japan. In Science, 12 Oct 2014
This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively.
Targeting Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases.
Review
New
Yamagata et al., Cambridge, United States. In Trends Pharmacol Sci, 14 Sep 2014
Given that Th17 cells express IL-17 together with many other proinflammatory cytokines [IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], targeting the Th17 cell lineage may be superior to blocking a single effector cytokine.
Interleukin-17 in human inflammatory diseases.
Review
New
Shahneh et al., Tehrān, Iran. In Postepy Dermatol Alergol, Aug 2014
Human Th17 pro-inflammatory cells are currently defined as cells that produce IL-17A and F, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-23.
The transcription factor IRF1 dictates the IL-21-dependent anticancer functions of TH9 cells.
New
Impact
Apetoh et al., Dijon, France. In Nat Immunol, Aug 2014
Under TH9-skewing conditions, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT1 and subsequent expression of IRF1, which bound to the promoters of Il9 and Il21 and enhanced secretion of the cytokines IL-9 and IL-21 from TH9 cells.
The transcription factor Foxp1 is a critical negative regulator of the differentiation of follicular helper T cells.
New
Impact
Hu et al., Philadelphia, United States. In Nat Immunol, Jul 2014
Mechanistically, Foxp1 directly and negatively regulated interleukin 21 (IL-21); Foxp1 also dampened expression of the costimulatory molecule ICOS and its downstream signaling at early stages of T cell activation, which rendered Foxp1-deficient CD4(+) T cells partially resistant to blockade of the ICOS ligand (ICOSL) during T(FH) cell development.
Interleukins in chronic liver disease: lessons learned from experimental mouse models.
Review
New
Tacke et al., Aachen, Germany. In Clin Exp Gastroenterol, Dec 2013
IL-22, on the other hand, protects from development of fibrosis or steatohepatitis.
Utilizing cytokines to function-enable human NK cells for the immunotherapy of cancer.
Review
New
Fehniger et al., Saint Louis, United States. In Scientifica (cairo), Dec 2013
Here, we review the roles of major cytokines that regulate human NK cell development, survival, and function, including IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, and IL-21, and their translation to the clinic as immunotherapy agents.
Interleukin-22 protects intestinal stem cells from immune-mediated tissue damage and regulates sensitivity to graft versus host disease.
Impact
GeneRIF
van den Brink et al., New York City, United States. In Immunity, 2012
IL-22 as a critical regulator of tissue sensitivity to GVHD and a protective factor for intestinal stem cells during inflammatory intestinal damage.
Preparation and characterization of mouse IL-22 and its four single-amino-acid muteins that act as IL-22 receptor-1 antagonists.
GeneRIF
Gertler et al., Israel. In Protein Eng Des Sel, 2012
Recombinant mouse il-22 (mIL-22) and its variants were expressed in E coli, refolded and purified.The binding of IL-22 and its four muteins to immobilized mIL-22 receptor alpha1 extracellular domain (mIL-22 Ralpha1-ECD) exhibited similar affinity.
NK1.1+ cells and IL-22 regulate vaccine-induced protective immunity against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
GeneRIF
Vankayalapati et al., Tyler, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
IL-22, produced by NK1.1-expressing cells, induces optimal protective immunity through enhancing antigen-specific T cell responses after challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
IL-21 promotes lupus-like disease in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4 T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.
GeneRIF
Rus et al., Baltimore, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
IL-21 promotes autoimmunity in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4+ T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.
Activated and resting regulatory T cell exhaustion concurs with high levels of interleukin-22 expression in systemic sclerosis lesions.
GeneRIF
Gorochov et al., Paris, France. In Ann Rheum Dis, 2012
Systemic sclerosis pathogenesis does not appear to be linked to IL-17-, but rather to IL-22-producing cells with skin-homing potential and a concomitant quantitative Treg defect.
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