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GoPubMed Proteins lists recent and important papers and reviews for proteins. Page last changed on 01 Mar 2015.

Interleukin 21

IL-21, IL-22, Interleukin-21, interleukin-22
This gene encodes a member of the common-gamma chain family of cytokines with immunoregulatory activity. The encoded protein plays a role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing the differentiation, proliferation and activity of multiple target cells including macrophages, natural killer cells, B cells and cytotoxic T cells. Dysregulation of this gene plays a role in multiple immune-mediated diseases including lupus, psoriasis and chronic inflammatory diseases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: IL-17, CD4, Interleukin-6, CAN, IL-10
Papers using IL-21 antibodies
The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets.
Supplier
Sandberg Johan K., In PLoS ONE, 2000
... IL-7, IL-4, IL-9; 50 ug/mL IL-12, 0.25 mg/mL IL-18 (all from R&D Systems); 100 ug/mL IL-21 (Miltenyi Biotec), 5 ug/mL IL-15 (PeproTech), 100 ...
Modulation of flagellar expression in Escherichia coli by acetyl phosphate and the osmoregulator OmpR.
Supplier
Masucci Maria G., In PLoS ONE, 1994
... Cells were stimulated with human recombinant IL-22 (Cell Signaling Technologies) for the indicated ...
Papers on IL-21
Increased expression of transcription factor Bcl-6 in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.
New
Wang et al., Huaiyin, China. In Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 25 Mar 2015
In this study, 22 CRSwNP patients and 12 normal controls were enrolled, Bcl-6 (the key transcription factor for Tfh cell differentiation) immunoreactivity was examined by immunohistochemical staining, and the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21 was examined using qPCR, ELISA and Western blot, respectively.
Elevated TGF-β1/IL-31 Pathway Is Associated with the Disease Severity of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Cirrhosis.
New
Su et al., Quanzhou, China. In Viral Immunol, 24 Mar 2015
To investigate the association between TGF-β1/IL-31 and stages of chronic HBV infection, serum TGF-β1, IL-9, IL-10,IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, IL-31, IL-33, and IL-35 were determined among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB; n=19), HBV-LC (n=20), and a normal control population (NC; n=18).
Increased circulating follicular helper T cells and activated B cells correlate with disease severity in patients with psoriasis.
New
Hao et al., Chongqing, China. In J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 24 Mar 2015
Serum IL-21 levels were measured by ELISA.
IL-4-Secreting Secondary T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cells Arise from Memory T Cells, Not Persisting Tfh Cells, through a B Cell-Dependent Mechanism.
New
Pearce et al., Leiden, Netherlands. In J Immunol, 23 Mar 2015
Additionally, following immunization with SEA (but not with an Ag that induced type 1 immunity), IL-4 and IL-21 were coproduced by individual Tfh cells, revealing a potential mechanism through which appropriate class-switching can be coupled to plasmablast proliferation to enforce type 2 immunity.
Interleukin-22 Induces Interleukin-18 Expression from Epithelial Cells during Intestinal Infection.
New
Impact
Ouyang et al., Berlin, Germany. In Immunity, 17 Mar 2015
We show here that attenuated ileitis observed in interleukin-22 (IL-22)-deficient mice was associated with reduced production of Th1-cell-promoting IL-18.
Interleukin-22: Immunobiology and Pathology.
New
Impact
van den Brink et al., Melbourne, Australia. In Annu Rev Immunol, 11 Mar 2015
UNASSIGNED: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T helper (Th) 17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells, and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).
A pathogenetic role for IL-21 in primary Sjögren syndrome.
Review
New
Kim et al., Seoul, South Korea. In Nat Rev Rheumatol, 13 Feb 2015
IL-21 is receiving attention as a potential key player in the pathogenesis of pSS owing to its pleiotropic effects on the type I interferon signalling pathway, and newly identified roles in generation of follicular and IL-17-producing subtypes of helper T cells, as well as plasma-cell differentiation and B-cell activation.
Cytokine crowdsourcing: multicellular production of TH17-associated cytokines.
Review
New
O'Connor et al., Albany, United States. In J Leukoc Biol, Jan 2015
IL-17A is often present in a composite milieu that includes cytokines produced by TH17 cells (i.e., IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-26) or associated with other T cell lineages (e.g., IFN-γ).
Human RORγt(+)CD34(+) cells are lineage-specified progenitors of group 3 RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells.
New
Impact
Romagnani et al., Genova, Italy. In Immunity, Jan 2015
Thus, we demonstrate that in humans RORγt(+)CD34(+) cells are lineage-specified progenitors of IL-22(+) ILC3s and propose that tonsils and intestinal LP, which are enriched both in committed precursors and mature ILC3s, might represent preferential sites of ILC3 lineage differentiation.
The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.
Review
New
Romagnani et al., Florence, Italy. In J Allergy Clin Immunol, Jan 2015
Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi.
Molecular underpinnings of Th17 immune-regulation and their implications in autoimmune diabetes.
Review
New
Subramaniyam et al., Tiruchchirāppalli, India. In Cytokine, Jan 2015
Th17 cells are characterized by the expression of effector cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22, and lineage specific transcription factor ROR-C in human and ROR-γt in mice.
PD-1 expression defines two distinct T-cell sub-populations in follicular lymphoma that differentially impact patient survival.
New
Ansell et al., Rochester, United States. In Blood Cancer J, Dec 2014
Intratumoral CD4(+)PD-1(high) T cells have a TFH cell phenotype, express CXCR5, secrete IL-21 and are BCL-6 positive with no TIM-3 expression.
Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells.
Review
New
Ahmed et al., Atlanta, United States. In Front Immunol, Dec 2014
This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules.
The chemokine receptor CXCR6 controls the functional topography of interleukin-22 producing intestinal innate lymphoid cells.
New
Impact
Di Santo et al., Paris, France. In Immunity, Dec 2014
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a critical role in mucosal defense, although the molecular mechanisms that ensure IL-22 tissue distribution remain poorly understood.
Inflammation versus host defense in obesity.
New
Impact
Ballantyne et al., Houston, United States. In Cell Metab, Dec 2014
(2014) report that immune cells from obese mice have decreased production of IL-22, a cytokine involved in immune responses and inflammation, and reveal therapeutic effects of exogenous IL-22 against obesity-linked metabolic dysfunctions.
Interleukin-22 protects intestinal stem cells from immune-mediated tissue damage and regulates sensitivity to graft versus host disease.
Impact
GeneRIF
van den Brink et al., New York City, United States. In Immunity, 2012
IL-22 as a critical regulator of tissue sensitivity to GVHD and a protective factor for intestinal stem cells during inflammatory intestinal damage.
Preparation and characterization of mouse IL-22 and its four single-amino-acid muteins that act as IL-22 receptor-1 antagonists.
GeneRIF
Gertler et al., Israel. In Protein Eng Des Sel, 2012
Recombinant mouse il-22 (mIL-22) and its variants were expressed in E coli, refolded and purified.The binding of IL-22 and its four muteins to immobilized mIL-22 receptor alpha1 extracellular domain (mIL-22 Ralpha1-ECD) exhibited similar affinity.
NK1.1+ cells and IL-22 regulate vaccine-induced protective immunity against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
GeneRIF
Vankayalapati et al., Tyler, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
IL-22, produced by NK1.1-expressing cells, induces optimal protective immunity through enhancing antigen-specific T cell responses after challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
IL-21 promotes lupus-like disease in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4 T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.
GeneRIF
Rus et al., Baltimore, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
IL-21 promotes autoimmunity in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4+ T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.
Activated and resting regulatory T cell exhaustion concurs with high levels of interleukin-22 expression in systemic sclerosis lesions.
GeneRIF
Gorochov et al., Paris, France. In Ann Rheum Dis, 2012
Systemic sclerosis pathogenesis does not appear to be linked to IL-17-, but rather to IL-22-producing cells with skin-homing potential and a concomitant quantitative Treg defect.
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