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GoPubMed Proteins lists recent and important papers and reviews for proteins. Page last changed on 25 Oct 2014.

Interleukin 21

IL-21, IL-22, Interleukin-21, interleukin-22
This gene encodes a member of the common-gamma chain family of cytokines with immunoregulatory activity. The encoded protein plays a role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing the differentiation, proliferation and activity of multiple target cells including macrophages, natural killer cells, B cells and cytotoxic T cells. Dysregulation of this gene plays a role in multiple immune-mediated diseases including lupus, psoriasis and chronic inflammatory diseases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: IL-17, CD4, Interleukin-6, CAN, IL-10
Papers using IL-21 antibodies
The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets.
Supplier
Sandberg Johan K., In PLoS ONE, 2000
... IL-7, IL-4, IL-9; 50 ug/mL IL-12, 0.25 mg/mL IL-18 (all from R&D Systems); 100 ug/mL IL-21 (Miltenyi Biotec), 5 ug/mL IL-15 (PeproTech), 100 ...
Modulation of flagellar expression in Escherichia coli by acetyl phosphate and the osmoregulator OmpR.
Supplier
Masucci Maria G., In PLoS ONE, 1994
... Cells were stimulated with human recombinant IL-22 (Cell Signaling Technologies) for the indicated ...
Papers on IL-21
Lyn Deficiency Leads to Increased Microbiota-Dependent Intestinal Inflammation and Susceptibility to Enteric Pathogens.
New
Harder et al., Vancouver, Canada. In J Immunol, 22 Nov 2014
This dysbiosis was characterized by an expansion of segmented filamentous bacteria, associated with altered intestinal production of IL-22 and IgA, and was transmissible to wild-type mice, resulting in increased susceptibility to DSS.
Inflammation and Lymphopenia Trigger Autoimmunity by Suppression of IL-2-Controlled Regulatory T Cell and Increase of IL-21-Mediated Effector T Cell Expansion.
New
Mackay et al., Freiburg, Germany. In J Immunol, 22 Nov 2014
Both these conditions contribute to autoimmune pathogenesis and were accompanied by decreases in the availability of IL-2 and increases in levels of IL-21.
Interleukin-22 alleviates metabolic disorders and restores mucosal immunity in diabetes.
New
Impact
Ouyang et al., San Francisco, United States. In Nature, 09 Nov 2014
Here we investigate the connection between IL-22 and metabolic disorders.
Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host-commensal symbiosis in sickness.
New
Impact
Chervonsky et al., Chicago, United States. In Nature, 01 Nov 2014
Here we show that systemic exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands causes rapid α(1,2)-fucosylation of small intestine epithelial cells (IECs) in mice, which requires the sensing of TLR agonists, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-23 by dendritic cells, activation of innate lymphoid cells and expression of fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2) by IL-22-stimulated IECs.
New advances in molecular mechanisms and emerging therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver diseases.
Review
New
Ding et al., Kansas City, United States. In World J Gastroenterol, 28 Oct 2014
In addition, we summarize emerging adaptive protective effects induced by alcohol to attenuate alcohol-induced liver pathogenesis including FoxO3, IL-22, autophagy and nuclear lipin-1α.
Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation.
New
Impact
Kiyono et al., Tokyo, Japan. In Science, 12 Oct 2014
This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively.
[Th17 cells and aplastic anemia].
New
Shen et al., Taiyuan, China. In Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi, 30 Sep 2014
During the past few years, a novel family of CD4(+)T cell lineage was detected and named as Th17 cells because of its unique ability expressing IL-17, which also can produce IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-26.
[Construction and In Vitro Study of Eukaryotic Expression Vector Carrying GITRL and IL-21 Gene].
New
Song et al., Lanzhou, China. In Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi, 30 Sep 2014
The aim of this study was to construct the eukaryotic expression vector carrying glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor ligand (GITRL) and interleukin-21 (IL-21) gene for transfection into chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) dervied dendritic cell (DC), so as to provide an effective platform for exploring the function of target gene in CML.
Targeting Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases.
Review
New
Yamagata et al., Cambridge, United States. In Trends Pharmacol Sci, 14 Sep 2014
Given that Th17 cells express IL-17 together with many other proinflammatory cytokines [IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], targeting the Th17 cell lineage may be superior to blocking a single effector cytokine.
The panoply of αβT cells in the skin.
Review
New
Miyachi et al., Kyoto, Japan. In J Dermatol Sci, 12 Sep 2014
Th22 cells produce IL-22 that activates epithelial cells and mediates acanthosis in psoriasis and AD.
Interleukin-17 in human inflammatory diseases.
Review
New
Shahneh et al., Tehrān, Iran. In Postepy Dermatol Alergol, Aug 2014
Human Th17 pro-inflammatory cells are currently defined as cells that produce IL-17A and F, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-23.
The transcription factor IRF1 dictates the IL-21-dependent anticancer functions of TH9 cells.
New
Impact
Apetoh et al., Dijon, France. In Nat Immunol, Aug 2014
Under TH9-skewing conditions, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT1 and subsequent expression of IRF1, which bound to the promoters of Il9 and Il21 and enhanced secretion of the cytokines IL-9 and IL-21 from TH9 cells.
The transcription factor Foxp1 is a critical negative regulator of the differentiation of follicular helper T cells.
New
Impact
Hu et al., Philadelphia, United States. In Nat Immunol, Jul 2014
Mechanistically, Foxp1 directly and negatively regulated interleukin 21 (IL-21); Foxp1 also dampened expression of the costimulatory molecule ICOS and its downstream signaling at early stages of T cell activation, which rendered Foxp1-deficient CD4(+) T cells partially resistant to blockade of the ICOS ligand (ICOSL) during T(FH) cell development.
Interleukins in chronic liver disease: lessons learned from experimental mouse models.
Review
New
Tacke et al., Aachen, Germany. In Clin Exp Gastroenterol, Dec 2013
IL-22, on the other hand, protects from development of fibrosis or steatohepatitis.
Decreased Frequencies of Circulating CD4+ T Follicular Helper Cells Associated with Diminished Plasma IL-21 in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
New
Babu et al., Chennai, India. In Plos One, Dec 2013
Similarly, antigen induced frequencies of Tfh cells expressing IL-21 was also significantly lower in PTB individuals and this was reflected in diminished circulating levels of IL-21 and IFNγ.
Interleukin-22 protects intestinal stem cells from immune-mediated tissue damage and regulates sensitivity to graft versus host disease.
Impact
GeneRIF
van den Brink et al., New York City, United States. In Immunity, 2012
IL-22 as a critical regulator of tissue sensitivity to GVHD and a protective factor for intestinal stem cells during inflammatory intestinal damage.
Preparation and characterization of mouse IL-22 and its four single-amino-acid muteins that act as IL-22 receptor-1 antagonists.
GeneRIF
Gertler et al., Israel. In Protein Eng Des Sel, 2012
Recombinant mouse il-22 (mIL-22) and its variants were expressed in E coli, refolded and purified.The binding of IL-22 and its four muteins to immobilized mIL-22 receptor alpha1 extracellular domain (mIL-22 Ralpha1-ECD) exhibited similar affinity.
NK1.1+ cells and IL-22 regulate vaccine-induced protective immunity against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
GeneRIF
Vankayalapati et al., Tyler, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
IL-22, produced by NK1.1-expressing cells, induces optimal protective immunity through enhancing antigen-specific T cell responses after challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
IL-21 promotes lupus-like disease in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4 T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.
GeneRIF
Rus et al., Baltimore, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
IL-21 promotes autoimmunity in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4+ T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.
Activated and resting regulatory T cell exhaustion concurs with high levels of interleukin-22 expression in systemic sclerosis lesions.
GeneRIF
Gorochov et al., Paris, France. In Ann Rheum Dis, 2012
Systemic sclerosis pathogenesis does not appear to be linked to IL-17-, but rather to IL-22-producing cells with skin-homing potential and a concomitant quantitative Treg defect.
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