Sleep Pharmacogenetics: Personalized Sleep-Wake Therapy.
Zürich, Switzerland. In Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, Feb 2016
Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, γ-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum.
The Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness.
Menlo Park, United States. In Psychiatr Clin North Am, Dec 2015
These wake-promoting systems are regulated by hypothalamic hypocretin/orexins, while GABAergic sleep-promoting nuclei are found in the preoptic area, brainstem and lateral hypothalamus.
A Path to Sleep Is through the Eye(1,2,3).
Stony Brook, United States. In Eneuro, Mar 2015
Additional light can lengthen Phase 2. Potential retinal pathways through which the sleep system might be light-activated are described and the potential roles of orexin (hypocretin) and melanin-concentrating hormone are discussed.
EEG effect of orexin A in freely moving rats.
Budapest, Hungary. In Acta Physiol Hung, 2012
Orexin A administration differently affected fronto-occipital EEG waves in the different frequency bands recorded for 24 hours. Delta (1-4 Hz) and alpha (10-16 Hz) power decreased, while theta (4-10 Hz) and beta (16-48 Hz) power increased.