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Chromobox homolog 3

HP1gamma, M32, CBX3
At the nuclear envelope, the nuclear lamina and heterochromatin are adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. The protein encoded by this gene binds DNA and is a component of heterochromatin. This protein also can bind lamin B receptor, an integral membrane protein found in the inner nuclear membrane. The dual binding functions of the encoded protein may explain the association of heterochromatin with the inner nuclear membrane. This protein binds histone H3 tails methylated at Lys-9 sites. This protein is also recruited to sites of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and double-strand breaks. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein but differing in the 5' UTR, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: Histone, Haptoglobin, HP1beta, CAN, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1
Papers on HP1gamma
Interplay of Promoter Usage and Intragenic CpG Content: Impact on GFP Reporter Gene Expression.
New
Wagner et al., Regensburg, Germany. In Hum Gene Ther, Dec 2015
Notably, GFP silencing in P19 cells could be prevented completely by the bidirectional, dual divergently transcribed A2UCOE (ubiquitously acting chromatin-opening element derived from the human HNRPA2B1-CBX3 locus) promoter.
A hypomorphic Cbx3 allele causes prenatal growth restriction and perinatal energy homeostasis defects.
New
Fundele et al., Uppsala, Sweden. In J Biosci, Jun 2015
Mammals have three HP1 protein isotypes HP1 beta (CBX1), HP1 alpha (CBX3) and HP1 alpha (CBX5) that are encoded by the corresponding genes Cbx1, Cbx3 and Cbx5.
A minimal ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) effectively prevents silencing of juxtaposed heterologous promoters by epigenetic remodeling in multipotent and pluripotent stem cells.
New
Grez et al., Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Nucleic Acids Res, Mar 2015
We and others have demonstrated that a 1.5 kb methylation-free CpG island from the human HNRPA2B1-CBX3 housekeeping genes (A2UCOE) effectively prevents transgene silencing and variegation in cell lines, multipotent and pluripotent stem cells, and their differentiated progeny.
Proteomic analysis of embryonic kidney development: Heterochromatin proteins as epigenetic regulators of nephrogenesis.
Dihazi et al., Göttingen, Germany. In Sci Rep, 2014
Bioinformatics analysis suggests developmental stage-specific pathway activation and highlighted heterochromatin protein 1 (Cbx1, Cbx3, Cbx5) and Trim28 as potential key players in nephrogenesis.
Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.
Zhou et al., Wuhan, China. In Sci Rep, 2014
Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis.
Proteomic and genomic approaches reveal critical functions of H3K9 methylation and heterochromatin protein-1γ in reprogramming to pluripotency.
Impact
Plath et al., Los Angeles, United States. In Nat Cell Biol, 2013
Similarly, we find that inhibition of heterochromatin protein-1γ (Cbx3), a protein known to recognize H3K9 methylation, enhances reprogramming.
Molecular basis of pregnancy-induced breast cancer prevention.
Russo et al., In Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig, 2012
This is accompanied by upregulation of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) elements including X2-inactive specific transcript (XIST) and chromatin remodeling genes, such as chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2 (CHD2) and the chromobox homolog 3 (CBX3), whose products are required for controlling recruitment of protein/protein or DNA/protein interactions Another important gene upregulated in the parous breast epithelial cells is the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase or enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a member of the polycomb group (PcG) forming multimeric protein complexes that maintains the transcriptional repressive state of genes over successive cell generations.
Structural basis of the chromodomain of Cbx3 bound to methylated peptides from histone h1 and G9a.
GeneRIF
Zang et al., Hefei, China. In Plos One, 2011
The Cbx3 chromodomain binds with comparable affinities to all of the methylated H3K9, H1K26 and G9aK185 peptides.
HP1γ links histone methylation marks to meiotic synapsis in mice.
GeneRIF
Koseki et al., Yokohama, Japan. In Development, 2011
the role of the HP1gamma/G9a axis is to retain centromeric regions of unpaired homologous chromosomes in close alignment and facilitate progression of their pairing in early meiotic prophase
Epigenetic displacement of HP1 from heterochromatin by HIV-1 Vpr causes premature sister chromatid separation.
GeneRIF
Ishizaka et al., Tokyo, Japan. In J Cell Biol, 2011
HIV-1 Vpr displaces heterochromatin protein 1-alpha and heterochromatin protein 1-gamma from chromatin, resulting in premature chromatid separation.
A role for heterochromatin protein 1γ at human telomeres.
GeneRIF
Smith et al., New York City, United States. In Genes Dev, 2011
HP1gamma localizes to telomeres in S phase, where it is required to establish/maintain cohesion
Recruitment of the cohesin loading factor NIPBL to DNA double-strand breaks depends on MDC1, RNF168 and HP1γ in human cells.
GeneRIF
Yamashita et al., Nagasaki, Japan. In Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2011
this study reveals that human NIPBL is a novel protein recruited to DSB sites, and the recruitment is controlled by MDC1, RNF168 and HP1gamma.
HP1 proteins--what is the essential interaction?
Review
Singh, Germany. In Genetika, 2010
There are three mammalian HP1 genes, Cbx5 (encoding HP1alpha), Cbx1 (encoding HP1beta) and Cbx3 (encoding HP1gamma).
Erk signaling and chromatin remodeling in MMTV promoter activation by progestins.
Review
Beato et al., Barcelona, Spain. In Nucl Recept Signal, 2008
This modification promotes the displacement of HP1gamma and subsequent chromatin remodeling.
Retrovirus silencing by an epigenetic TRIM.
Impact
Rastegar et al., Toronto, Canada. In Cell, 2007
Epigenetic silencing of retrovirus transcription is accomplished by "writing" a dimethyl mark on lysine 9 of histone H3 that is read by the heterochromatin protein HP1gamma.
L3MBTL1, a histone-methylation-dependent chromatin lock.
Impact
Reinberg et al., United States. In Cell, 2007
We demonstrate that the malignant-brain-tumor (MBT) protein L3MBTL1 is in a complex with core histones, histone H1b, HP1gamma, and Rb.
Telomere length regulates the epigenetic status of mammalian telomeres and subtelomeres.
Impact
Blasco et al., Madrid, Spain. In Nat Genet, 2007
Telomerase-deficient Terc(-/-) mice with short telomeres show decreased trimethylation of histone 3 at Lys9 (H3K9) and histone 4 at Lys20 (H4K20) in telomeric and subtelomeric chromatin as well as decreased CBX3 binding accompanied by increased H3 and H4 acetylation at these regions.
Chromatin remodeling and control of cell proliferation by progestins via cross talk of progesterone receptor with the estrogen receptors and kinase signaling pathways.
Review
Beato et al., Barcelona, Spain. In Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2006
As a consequence of Erk activation PR is phosphorylated, Msk1 is activated, and a ternary complex PR-Erk-Msk1 is recruited to MMTV nucleosome B. Msk1 phosphorylates H3 at serine 10, which is followed by acetylation at lysine 14, displacement of HP1gamma, and recruitment of Brg1, PCAF, and RNA polymerase II.
Leaving a mark: the many footprints of the elongating RNA polymerase II.
Review
Shilatifard et al., Saint Louis, United States. In Curr Opin Genet Dev, 2006
Recent studies link transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II to H3K9 methylation and the recruitment of the HP1 family protein HP1gamma.
Evidence for the existence of an HP1-mediated subcode within the histone code.
Impact
Urrutia et al., Rochester, United States. In Nat Cell Biol, 2006
Currently, the mammalian heterochromatic proteins HP1alpha, HP1beta and the pan-nuclear HP1gamma are considered 'gatekeepers' of methyl-K9-H3-mediated silencing.
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