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Hoxd4, Hox-4.2, HOX4B, Hox-5.1, hoxd4a
This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located at 2q31-2q37 chromosome regions. Deletions that removed the entire HOXD gene cluster or 5' end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and genital abnormalities. The protein encoded by this gene may play a role in determining positional values in developing limb buds. Alternatively spliced variants have been described but their full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from
Curtis Bird et al., Auburn, United States. In Vet Comp Oncol, Sep 2015
Five canine HOX genes were overexpressed with expression profiles consistent with oncogene-like character (HOXA1, HOXA13, HOXD4, HOXD9 and SIX1) and three HOX genes with underexpressed profiles (HOXA11, HOXC8 and HOXC9) were also identified as was an apparent nonsense mutation in HOXC6.
Four CpG-sites located within the MIR10B gene sequence and about 1 kb upstream of the HOXD4 gene were also confirmed as hypomethylated in the independent dataset of the right coronary arteries in the area of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in comparison with the other vascular tissues.
Tsonis et al., Lexington, United States. In Hum Genomics, 2012
In particular, the distance between hoxd13 and hoxd11 is longer in newt than orthologous regions from vertebrate species with expanded Hox clusters and is predicted to exceed the length of the entire HoxD clusters (hoxd13-hoxd4) of humans, mice, and frogs.
Santella et al., New York City, United States. In Epigenetics, 2012
Among the 54 significant CpG sites, 15 sites had more than 2-fold tumor/non-tumor changes, 17 sites had differences > 10%, and 10 sites had both features [including 8 significantly hypermethylated CpG sites in the host genes of miR-10a, miR-10b and miR-196b (HOXB4, HOXD4 and HOXA9, respectively)].
McGinnis et al., New Haven, United States. In Nature, 1992
Like other homeobox genes of the Antennapedia and bithorax complexes (collectively called the HOM complex), the Drosophila Deformed (Dfd) gene has structural homologues in the Hox/HOX complexes of mouse and humans, one of which is human HOX4B (refs 3, 4).