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proteins. Page last changed on 19 Aug 2016.
Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4
HM4, M4R, Chrm4
The muscarinic cholinergic receptors belong to a larger family of G protein-coupled receptors. The functional diversity of these receptors is defined by the binding of acetylcholine and includes cellular responses such as adenylate cyclase inhibition, phosphoinositide degeneration, and potassium channel mediation. Muscarinic receptors influence many effects of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. The clinical implications of this receptor are unknown; however, mouse studies link its function to adenylyl cyclase inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from
Surmeier et al., Chicago, United States. In Neuron, Dec 2015
Furthermore, in a mouse model of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD), boosting M4R signaling with positive allosteric modulator (PAM) blocked aberrant LTP in dSPNs, enabled LTP reversal, and attenuated dyskinetic behaviors.
Shpakova et al., Saint Petersburg, Russia. In Bull Exp Biol Med, Nov 2015
We synthesized an N-palmitoylated peptide Palm-Val-[Lys-Asn-Lys-Asn-Leu-His-Ser-Pro-(Nle)-Tyr-Phe-Phe71-82]-amide-Palm-Val-(71-82) structurally corresponding to cytoplasmic loop 1 of melanocortin 4 receptor (M4R).
Hellgren Kotaleski et al., Stockholm, Sweden. In J Neurosci, Nov 2015
The simulations suggest that, under basal conditions, cAMP/PKA signaling could be significantly inhibited in D1R+ MSNs via ACh/M4R/Gi/o and an ACh dip is required to gate a subset of D1R/Golf-dependent PKA activation.
Booij et al., Amsterdam, Netherlands. In J Nucl Med, Feb 2015
Inhibition of (127)I-iododexetimide and (123)I-iododexetimide binding in M1R-rich brain areas by the M1R/M4R agonist xanomeline, or the antipsychotics olanzapine (M1R antagonist) and haloperidol (low M1R affinity), was assessed in rats ex vivo.
This review will focus on data suggesting changes in levels of CHRM1 and CHRM4 implicate these receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia whereas data suggest a role for CHRM2 in mood disorders.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comparative metabolite-profiling approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was applied to investigate the effect of P starvation and its restoration in low-P sensitive (HM-4) and low-P tolerant (PEHM-2) maize genotypes.
Cattaneo et al., Milano, Italy. In Gene Ther, 2013
Similarly, expression of other REST-regulated genes such as Synapsin I (Syn1), Proenkephalin (Penk1) and Cholinergic receptor muscarinic 4 (Chrm4) were restored to normal levels while non-REST-regulated genes were unaffected.
Myslivecek et al., Praha, Czech Republic. In Brain Res Bull, 2013
Knocking out the c-fos gene changed the expression of MR in FC (reduced M1R, M4R and M5R expression), TC (increased M4R expression), OC (decreased M2R and M3R expression) and hippocampus (reduced M3R expression).
Dean et al., Melbourne, Australia. In Schizophr Res, 2013
Although schizophrenia is a widespread disorder of unknown aetiology, we have previously shown that muscarinic M4 receptor (CHRM4) expression is decreased in the hippocampus and caudate-putamen from subjects with the disorder, implicating the receptor in its pathophysiology.
Haga et al., Tokyo, Japan. In J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2008
Regions in i3 including Leu272-Arg338 and Val373-Ala393 are involved in internalization of the M4 receptor; the region including Val373-Ala393 is indispensable for its recycling, whereas the other regions are dispensable for internalization and recycling.