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Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4

HM4, M4R, Chrm4
The muscarinic cholinergic receptors belong to a larger family of G protein-coupled receptors. The functional diversity of these receptors is defined by the binding of acetylcholine and includes cellular responses such as adenylate cyclase inhibition, phosphoinositide degeneration, and potassium channel mediation. Muscarinic receptors influence many effects of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. The clinical implications of this receptor are unknown; however, mouse studies link its function to adenylyl cyclase inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: HAD, WAVE, hm2, m-1, CAN
Papers on HM4
M4 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling Ameliorates Striatal Plasticity Deficits in Models of L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia.
New
Surmeier et al., Chicago, United States. In Neuron, Dec 2015
Furthermore, in a mouse model of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD), boosting M4R signaling with positive allosteric modulator (PAM) blocked aberrant LTP in dSPNs, enabled LTP reversal, and attenuated dyskinetic behaviors.
A Transcriptome-Led Exploration of Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Somatostatin-Producing D-Cells in the Gastric Epithelium.
New
Gribble et al., Cambridge, United Kingdom. In Endocrinology, Nov 2015
Pyy, Gipr, Chrm4, Calcrl, Taar1, and Casr were identified as genes that are highly enriched in D-cells compared with SST-negative cells.
Regulation of the Melanocortin-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase System by N-Acylated Peptide 71-82 of Type 4 Melanocortin Receptor.
New
Shpakova et al., Saint Petersburg, Russia. In Bull Exp Biol Med, Nov 2015
We synthesized an N-palmitoylated peptide Palm-Val-[Lys-Asn-Lys-Asn-Leu-His-Ser-Pro-(Nle)-Tyr-Phe-Phe71-82]-amide-Palm-Val-(71-82) structurally corresponding to cytoplasmic loop 1 of melanocortin 4 receptor (M4R).
Sensing Positive versus Negative Reward Signals through Adenylyl Cyclase-Coupled GPCRs in Direct and Indirect Pathway Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons.
New
Hellgren Kotaleski et al., Stockholm, Sweden. In J Neurosci, Nov 2015
The simulations suggest that, under basal conditions, cAMP/PKA signaling could be significantly inhibited in D1R+ MSNs via ACh/M4R/Gi/o and an ACh dip is required to gate a subset of D1R/Golf-dependent PKA activation.
[THE THYROID STATUS OF RATS IMMUNIZED WITH PEPTIDES DERIVED FROM THE EXTRACELLULAR REGIONS OF THE TYPES 3 AND 4 MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS AND THE 1B-SUBTYPE 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE RECEPTOR].
New
Sphakov et al., In Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol, Jul 2015
Pharmacological inhibition of type 4 melanocortin receptor (M4R) leads to disruption of the functioning of HPT axis and to reduction of the level of thyroid hormones.
123I-iododexetimide preferentially binds to the muscarinic receptor subtype M1 in vivo.
New
Booij et al., Amsterdam, Netherlands. In J Nucl Med, Feb 2015
Inhibition of (127)I-iododexetimide and (123)I-iododexetimide binding in M1R-rich brain areas by the M1R/M4R agonist xanomeline, or the antipsychotics olanzapine (M1R antagonist) and haloperidol (low M1R affinity), was assessed in rats ex vivo.
Possible involvement of muscarinic receptors in psychiatric disorders: a focus on schizophrenia and mood disorders.
Review
Scarr et al., Australia. In Curr Mol Med, 2014
This review will focus on data suggesting changes in levels of CHRM1 and CHRM4 implicate these receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia whereas data suggest a role for CHRM2 in mood disorders.
Metabolite Profiling of Low-P Tolerant and Low-P Sensitive Maize Genotypes under Phosphorus Starvation and Restoration Conditions.
Iqbal et al., New Delhi, India. In Plos One, 2014
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comparative metabolite-profiling approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was applied to investigate the effect of P starvation and its restoration in low-P sensitive (HM-4) and low-P tolerant (PEHM-2) maize genotypes.
[N-palmitoylated peptide 232-245 of rat type 4 melanocortin receptor possessing agonistic activity].
Derkach et al., In Tsitologiia, 2013
Melanocortin receptors of the type 4 (M4R) play a key role in the regulation of feeding behavior, neuroendocrine functions, and energy metabolism.
Expression of acetylcholine receptors by experimental rat renal allografts.
Grau et al., Gießen, Germany. In Biomed Res Int, 2013
In contrast, CHRNA9, CHRM4, and CHRM5 mRNA remained below the threshold of detection.
In vivo delivery of DN:REST improves transcriptional changes of REST-regulated genes in HD mice.
Cattaneo et al., Milano, Italy. In Gene Ther, 2013
Similarly, expression of other REST-regulated genes such as Synapsin I (Syn1), Proenkephalin (Penk1) and Cholinergic receptor muscarinic 4 (Chrm4) were restored to normal levels while non-REST-regulated genes were unaffected.
The restructuring of muscarinic receptor subtype gene transcripts in c-fos knock-out mice.
Myslivecek et al., Praha, Czech Republic. In Brain Res Bull, 2013
Knocking out the c-fos gene changed the expression of MR in FC (reduced M1R, M4R and M5R expression), TC (increased M4R expression), OC (decreased M2R and M3R expression) and hippocampus (reduced M3R expression).
Cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor gene polymorphisms: a potential risk factor and pharmacogenomic marker for schizophrenia.
Dean et al., Melbourne, Australia. In Schizophr Res, 2013
Although schizophrenia is a widespread disorder of unknown aetiology, we have previously shown that muscarinic M4 receptor (CHRM4) expression is decreased in the hippocampus and caudate-putamen from subjects with the disorder, implicating the receptor in its pathophysiology.
Validating the use of M4-BAC-GFP mice as tissue donors in cell replacement therapies in a rodent model of Huntington's disease.
GeneRIF
Dunnett et al., Freiburg, Germany. In J Neurosci Methods, 2011
Use of HM4- and green fluorescent protein-expressing trangenic mice as tissue donors in cell-based therapy validates a rodent model of Huntington disease.
Modulation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by interacting proteins.
Review
Wang et al., Kansas City, United States. In Neurosci Bull, 2010
Recently, the Gα(i/o)-coupled muscarinic M4 receptor (M4R) has been revealed to be one of these receptors.
Structural determinants of allosteric agonism and modulation at the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: identification of ligand-specific and global activation mechanisms.
GeneRIF
Christopoulos et al., Australia. In J Biol Chem, 2010
analysis of allosteric agonism and modulation at the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
Muscarinic M4 receptor recycling requires a motif in the third intracellular loop.
GeneRIF
Haga et al., Tokyo, Japan. In J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2008
Regions in i3 including Leu272-Arg338 and Val373-Ala393 are involved in internalization of the M4 receptor; the region including Val373-Ala393 is indispensable for its recycling, whereas the other regions are dispensable for internalization and recycling.
Intact coupling of M1 receptors and preserved M2 and M4 receptors in the cortex in progressive supranuclear palsy: contrast with other dementias.
GeneRIF
Burn et al., Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. In J Chem Neuroanat, 2008
In progressive supranuclear palsy: there were no changes in M4 muscarinic receptor density
Novel signaling pathways mediating reciprocal control of keratinocyte migration and wound epithelialization through M3 and M4 muscarinic receptors.
GeneRIF
Grando et al., Sacramento, United States. In J Cell Biol, 2004
M4 increases expression of "migratory" integrins; M4 effects resulted from inhibition of the inhibitory pathway involving the adenylyl cyclase-cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway
Differential regulation of PI hydrolysis and adenylyl cyclase by muscarinic receptor subtypes.
Impact
Capon et al., San Francisco, United States. In Nature, 1988
In contrast, the HM1 and HM4 mAChRs strongly activate PI hydrolysis, but do not inhibit adenylyl cyclase, and in fact can substantially elevate cAMP levels.
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