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Kallikrein-related peptidase 2

hK2, HKII, kallikrein 2, KLK2, glandular kallikrein 2
This gene encodes a member of the grandular kallikrein protein family. Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases that are clustered on chromosome 19. Members of this family are involved in a diverse array of biological functions. The protein encoded by this gene is a highly active trypsin-like serine protease that selectively cleaves at arginine residues. This protein is primarily expressed in prostatic tissue and is responsible for cleaving pro-prostate-specific antigen into its enzymatically active form. This gene is highly expressed in prostate tumor cells and may be a prognostic maker for prostate cancer risk. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: Kallikrein, Hexokinase, CAN, HAD, ACID
Papers on hK2
The Effects of Severe Hypoxia on Glycolytic Flux and Enzyme Activity in a Model of Solid Tumours.
Callaghan et al., Canberra, Australia. In J Cell Biochem, Feb 2016
However, the protein expression and enzymatic capacity of HK2, G6PDH, PK and LDH were all reduced by severe hypoxia.
Knockdown of RTN1A attenuates ER stress and kidney injury in albumin overload-induced nephropathy.
He et al., Shanghai, China. In Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, Feb 2016
We found that the incubation of HK2 cells with human serum albumin (HAS) induced the expression of RTN1A and ER stress markers, while knockdown of RTN1A expression attenuated HAS-induced ER stress and tubular cell apoptosis in vitro.
The effect of 3-bromopyruvate on human colorectal cancer cells is dependent on glucose concentration but not hexokinase II expression.
Coomber et al., Guelph, Canada. In Biosci Rep, Feb 2016
Hexokinase II (HKII) catalyzes the first irreversible step of glycolysis and is often overexpressed in cancer cells.
Dysregulation of sirtuins and key metabolic genes in skeletal muscle of pigs with spontaneous intrauterine growth restriction is associated with alterations of circulating IGF-1.
Pirola et al., Oullins, France. In Gen Comp Endocrinol, Feb 2016
Using a porcine model of spontaneous IUGR, we determined in utero (71, 112 days post-conception) and early-postnatal (2 days post-birth) IGF-1, insulin and leptin levels, and in parallel we investigated, in skeletal muscle, the developmental expression patterns of sirtuins and metabolic and signaling genes IRS1, GLUT4, HK2 and GAPDH.
Quantifying cellular mechanics and adhesion in renal tubular injury using single cell force spectroscopy.
Liu et al., Lincoln, United Kingdom. In Nanomedicine, Jan 2016
In the current study, atomic force microscopy single cell force spectroscopy (AFM-SCFS) was used to quantify changes in cellular stiffness and cell adhesion in TGF-β1 treated kidney cells of the human proximal tubule (HK2).
Prostate cancer screening in men aged 50-69 years (STHLM3): a prospective population-based diagnostic study.
Eklund et al., Stockholm, Sweden. In Lancet Oncol, Dec 2015
The predefined STHLM3 model (a combination of plasma protein biomarkers [PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, hK2, MSMB, MIC1], genetic polymorphisms [232 SNPs], and clinical variables [age, family, history, previous prostate biopsy, prostate exam]), and PSA concentration were both tested in all participants enrolled.
How do glycolytic enzymes favour cancer cell proliferation by nonmetabolic functions?
Icard et al., Caen, France. In Oncogene, Jul 2015
HKII and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) have mainly an antiapoptotic effect; PGI and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activate survival pathways (Akt and so on); phosphofructokinase 1 and triose phosphate isomerase participate in cell cycle activation; aldolase promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition; PKM2 enhances various nuclear effects such as transcription, stabilisation and so on.
The role of hexokinase in cardioprotection - mechanism and potential for translation.
Pasdois et al., Bristol, United Kingdom. In Br J Pharmacol, Apr 2015
Tumour cell mitochondria usually have high levels of hexokinase isoform 2 (HK2) bound to their outer mitochondrial membranes (OMM) and HK2 binding to heart mitochondria has also been implicated in resistance to reperfusion injury.
Emerging concepts in bioenergetics and cancer research: metabolic flexibility, coupling, symbiosis, switch, oxidative tumors, metabolic remodeling, signaling and bioenergetic therapy.
Rossignol et al., Bordeaux, France. In Int J Biochem Cell Biol, Feb 2015
The knowledge obtained on the multi-site regulation of energy metabolism in tumors was translated to cancer preclinical studies, supported by genetic proof of concept studies targeting LDHA, HK2, PGAM1, or ACLY.
The mitochondrial permeability transition: a current perspective on its identity and role in ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
Richardson et al., Bristol, United Kingdom. In J Mol Cell Cardiol, 2015
Recent evidence suggests that cardioprotective protocols such as preconditioning inhibit MPTP opening at reperfusion by preventing the loss of mitochondrial bound HK2 that stabilises these contact sites.
HK2/hexokinase-II integrates glycolysis and autophagy to confer cellular protection.
Miyamoto et al., San Diego, United States. In Autophagy, 2014
HK2/hexokinase-II is a predominant isoform in insulin-sensitive tissues such as heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues and is also upregulated in many types of tumors associated with enhanced aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect).
Hexokinase 2 is required for tumor initiation and maintenance and its systemic deletion is therapeutic in mouse models of cancer.
Hay et al., Chicago, United States. In Cancer Cell, 2013
Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is expressed at high level in cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal adult tissues.
Live-cell imaging evidence for the ciliary transport of rod photoreceptor opsin by heterotrimeric kinesin-2.
Williams et al., Los Angeles, United States. In J Neurosci, 2012
This study provided evidence from live-cell analysis that the conserved heterotrimeric kinesin-2 is required for the normal transport of opsin along the ciliary plasma membrane.
Hexokinase II knockdown results in exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy via increased ROS production.
Ardehali et al., Chicago, United States. In Embo Mol Med, 2012
HKII mitochondrial binding is also important for the hypertrophic effects, as HKII dissociation from the mitochondria resulted in de novo hypertrophy.
MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) regulates cancer glycolysis via targeting hexokinase 2 gene.
Ji et al., Shanghai, China. In J Biol Chem, 2012
We identified miR-143 as an essential regulator of cancer glycolysis via targeting HK2.
Correlation between FDG uptake by PET/CT and the expressions of glucose transporter type 1 and hexokinase II in cervical cancer.
Lim et al., Seoul, South Korea. In Int J Gynecol Cancer, 2012
Overexpression of hexokinase 2 may be related to 2-deoxy-2-F18-fluoro-D-glucose uptake in false-positive cervical cancer tissues on PET/CT.
A novel miR-155/miR-143 cascade controls glycolysis by regulating hexokinase 2 in breast cancer cells.
Liu et al., Shanghai, China. In Embo J, 2012
Via targeting C/EBPbeta (a transcriptional activator for mir-143), miR-155 represses mir-143, a negative regulator of hk2, thus resulting in upregulation of hk2 expression at the post-transcriptional level.
Kallikreins on steroids: structure, function, and hormonal regulation of prostate-specific antigen and the extended kallikrein locus.
Clements et al., Brisbane, Australia. In Endocr Rev, 2010
The interaction of the androgen receptor with androgen response elements in the promoter and enhancer of KLK2 and KLK3 is also summarized in detail.
Reducing unnecessary biopsy during prostate cancer screening using a four-kallikrein panel: an independent replication.
Lilja et al., New York City, United States. In J Clin Oncol, 2010
PURPOSE: We previously reported that a panel of four kallikrein forms in blood-total, free, and intact prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2)-can reduce unnecessary biopsy in previously unscreened men with elevated total PSA.
Long-term prediction of prostate cancer up to 25 years before diagnosis of prostate cancer using prostate kallikreins measured at age 44 to 50 years.
Berglund et al., Malmö, Sweden. In J Clin Oncol, 2007
PURPOSE: We examined whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) forms and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) measured at age 44 to 50 years predict long-term risk of incident prostate cancer.
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