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Defensin, alpha 6, Paneth cell-specific

HD6, DEFA6, alpha-defensin 6
Defensins are a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. Several alpha defensin genes appear to be clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 6, is highly expressed in the secretory granules of Paneth cells of the small intestine, and likely plays a role in host defense of human bowel. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: HD5, Defensin, HAD, POLYMERASE, hBD-2
Papers on HD6
Functional synergism of Human Defensin 5 and Human Defensin 6.
New
de Leeuw et al., Baltimore, United States. In Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Dec 2015
In humans, specialized epithelial cells, termed Paneth cells, located primarily in the small intestine express two defensins, Human Defensin-5 (HD-5) and Human Defensin-6 (HD-6).
The "Dispersal Rate" - a product dependent characteristic to predict the reliability of the calibrated in vitro SPF on WW5 plates.
New
Schläger et al., Hamburg, Germany. In Int J Cosmet Sci, Dec 2015
METHODS: 22 o/w emulsions with well-established in vivo SPF were measured in vitro close to the international Standard ISO 24443 on two different substrates (PMMA-plates: WW5 and HD6).
Crohn's disease-derived monocytes fail to induce Paneth cell defensins.
New
Wehkamp et al., Tübingen, Germany. In Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Dec 2015
Paneth cells reside in the small intestine and produce antimicrobial peptides essential for the host barrier, principally human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and HD6.
Antimicrobial activity of human α-defensin 6 analogs: insights into the physico-chemical reasons behind weak bactericidal activity of HD6 in vitro.
New
Nagaraj et al., Hyderābād, India. In J Pept Sci, Nov 2015
Human α-defensin 6 (HD6), unlike other mammalian defensins, does not exhibit bactericidal activity, particularly against aerobic bacteria.
Paneth cell α-defensin 6 (HD-6) is an antimicrobial peptide.
New
Wehkamp et al., Stuttgart, Germany. In Mucosal Immunol, May 2015
Human α-defensin 6 (HD-6) is produced exclusively by small intestinal Paneth cells but, in contrast to other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for HD-6, no direct antibacterial killing activity has been detected so far.
Regulation of human enteric α-defensins by NOD2 in the Paneth cell lineage.
Zhi et al., Guangzhou, China. In Eur J Cell Biol, 2015
Human enteric α-defensins (HD5 and HD6), major antimicrobial peptides produced by Paneth cells in the intestine, play important roles in intestinal innate immunity.
Antimicrobial peptides in 2014.
Review
Wang et al., Omaha, United States. In Pharmaceuticals (basel), 2014
Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions.
Chronic Heavy Alcohol Use is Associated with Upregulated Paneth Cell Antimicrobials in Gastric Mucosa.
Wehkamp et al., Tübingen, Germany. In Clin Transl Gastroenterol, 2014
RESULTS: Heavy alcohol use was associated with increased expression of Paneth cell HD5 and HD6 mRNA in the antrum, where these products are normally absent (HD5 mRNA in controls vs. PATIENTS: 2100±900 and 365 500±161 600, HD6 mRNA: 320±130 and 58 300±32 600 copies per 10 ng total RNA, means±s.e.m., P value: 0.022 and 0.011).
Molecular basis for self-assembly of a human host-defense peptide that entraps bacterial pathogens.
Nolan et al., Cambridge, United States. In J Am Chem Soc, 2014
Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-aa cysteine-rich peptide of the innate immune system.
TCF-1-mediated Wnt signaling regulates Paneth cell innate immune defense effectors HD-5 and -6: implications for Crohn's disease.
Wehkamp et al., Stuttgart, Germany. In Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2014
Reporter gene assays and in vitro promoter binding analysis revealed that TCF-1 activates α-defensin HD-5 and HD-6 transcription in cooperation with β-catenin and that activation is mediated by three distinct TCF binding sites.
Defensins in innate immunity.
Review
Lu et al., Xi'an, China. In Curr Opin Hematol, 2014
RECENT FINDINGS: A novel mode of antibacterial action is described for human enteric alpha-defensin 6, which forms structured nanonets to entrap bacterial pathogens and protect against bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium.
Innate immune functions of α-defensins in the small intestine.
Review
Bevins, Davis, United States. In Dig Dis, 2012
Human Paneth cells make two α-defensins: HD5 and HD6.
Role of defensins and cathelicidin LL37 in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory diseases.
Review
Lande et al., Roma, Italy. In Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2012
In particular, we refer to the human alpha-defensins called human neutrophil peptides (HNP1 through 4), which are produced by neutrophils, HD5 and HD6, mainly expressed in Paneth cells of intestine, the human beta-defensins HBD1, HBD2 and HBD3, synthesized by epithelial cells and LL37, which is located in granulocytes, but is also produced by epithelial cells of the skin, lungs, and gut.
Human α-defensin 6 promotes mucosal innate immunity through self-assembled peptide nanonets.
Impact
GeneRIF
Bevins et al., Davis, United States. In Science, 2012
study reports that HD6 affords protection against invasion by enteric bacterial pathogens in vitro and in vivo; after stochastic binding to bacterial surface proteins, HD6 undergoes ordered self-assembly to form fibrils and nanonets that surround and entangle bacteria
α-Defensins in human innate immunity.
Review
Lu et al., Los Angeles, United States. In Immunol Rev, 2012
The properties of HD6, an enigmatic Paneth cell α-defensin, are contrasted with those of the four myeloid α-defensins (HNP1-4) and of HD5, the other α-defensin of human Paneth cells.
Efficiency of antimicrobial defense: molecular flexibility of natural defensin and artificial bis-quaternary ammonium compound.
GeneRIF
Hori et al., Suzuka, Japan. In Anticancer Res, 2011
Regions 2, 3 & 9, 10 were more hydrophobic than other regions. It was difficult for the HD molecule to have many conformations because of its 3 S-S bridges; however, it responds to various external factors by restricting conformation.
Human defensins 5 and 6 enhance HIV-1 infectivity through promoting HIV attachment.
GeneRIF
Chang et al., Newark, United States. In Retrovirology, 2010
Defensins 5 and 6 enhance HIV-1 infectivity through promoting HIV attachment.
Defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6) overexpression threshold of over 60 fold can distinguish between adenoma and fully blown colon carcinoma in individual patients.
GeneRIF
Mothes et al., Jena, Germany. In Bmc Cancer, 2009
Defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6) may have a role in adenoma but not in progression to colon carcinoma
Functional role of metaplastic paneth cell defensins in Helicobacter pylori-infected stomach.
GeneRIF
Kohgo et al., Asahikawa, Japan. In Helicobacter, 2008
Human enteric defensin (HD)-5 and HD-6 were detected in Paneth cells, which are observed in the gastric metaplastic mucosa as well as small intestinal epithelia.
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