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Glutathione S-transferase, alpha 4

GSTA4, mGSTA4-4, GSTA4-4, hGSTA4-4, mGSTA4
Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes are involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, which are located in a cluster on chromosome 6, are highly related and encode enzymes with glutathione peroxidase activity that function in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products. Reactive electrophiles produced by oxidative metabolism have been linked to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cataract formation, and atherosclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: GST, Leukocyte Elastase, CAN, HAD, ACID
Papers on GSTA4
Increased hepatocellular protein carbonylation in human end-stage alcoholic cirrhosis.
Petersen et al., Aurora, United States. In Free Radic Biol Med, 27 Nov 2015
Western analysis revealed increased expression of GSTA4 and GSTπ in human ALD.
Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: 4-Hydroxynonenal, a key molecule in stress-mediated signaling.
Awasthi et al., Duarte, United States. In Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 14 Nov 2015
Cells exposed to mild, transient heat or oxidative stress acquire the capacity to exclude intracellular 4HNE at a faster rate by inducing GSTA4-4 which conjugates 4HNE to glutathione (GSH), and RLIP76 which mediates the ATP-dependent transport of the GSH-conjugate of 4HNE (GS-HNE).
Genetic Deficiency of Glutathione S-Transferase P Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Bhatnagar et al., Louisville, United States. In Circ Res, Sep 2015
METHODS AND RESULTS: In adult male C57BL/6 mouse hearts, Gstp1/2 was the most abundant GST transcript followed by Gsta4 and Gstm4.1, and GSTP activity was a significant fraction of the total GST activity.
Effects of Local Heart Irradiation in a Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4-Null Mouse Model.
Singh et al., Little Rock, United States. In Radiat Res, Jun 2015
Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (GSTA4-4) is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), an electrophilic product of lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes during oxidative stress.
The manganese-salen compound EUK-134 and N-acetyl cysteine rescue from zinc- and paraquat-induced toxicity in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Singh et al., Lucknow, India. In Chem Biol Interact, May 2015
While Zn and/or PQ elevated the total free radical generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalytic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase alpha 4-4 (GSTA4-4), a pronounced decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity was also observed.
Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase genes and survival of resected hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Liu et al., Xi'an, China. In World J Gastroenterol, May 2015
METHODS: Twelve tagging SNPs in GST genes (including GSTA1, GSTA4, GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTO1, GSTO2 and GSTP1) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX genotyping method in a cohort of 214 Chinese patients with resected HCC.
Differential proteomic analysis of the anti-depressive effects of oleamide in a rat chronic mild stress model of depression.
Wu et al., Shenyang, China. In Pharmacol Biochem Behav, Apr 2015
CMS increased the levels of adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1), nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDKB), histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), acyl-protein thioesterase 2 (APT-2), and glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4).
Increased 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts in male GSTA4-4/PPAR-α double knockout mice enhance injury during early stages of alcoholic liver disease.
Petersen et al., Novara, Italy. In Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, Apr 2015
To test the significance of lipid peroxidation in the development of alcoholic liver injury, an ethanol (EtOH) liquid diet was fed to male 129/SvJ mice (wild-type, WT) and glutathione S-transferase A4-4-null (GSTA4-/-) mice for 40 days.
Reactive aldehyde-scavenging enzyme activities in atherosclerotic plaques of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers.
Cuccurullo et al., Chieti, Italy. In Atherosclerosis, Feb 2015
METHODS: We have assessed specific enzymatic activities of class 1, 2, and 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1, ALDH2, and ALDH3, respectively), glutathione S-transferase (isozyme A4-4, GSTA4-4), and aldose reductase (AR), namely the major reactive aldehyde-scavenging enzymes, together with lipid peroxidation, i.e., fluorescent damage products of lipid peroxidation (FDPL), in carotid atherosclerotic plaques surgically removed from 17 cigarette smokers and 17 nonsmokers.
Effects of silver nanoparticles on neonatal testis development in mice.
Kim et al., Seoul, South Korea. In Int J Nanomedicine, Dec 2014
The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that the E1f1ay, Gsta4, and Fdx1 genes were up-regulated, and the Amh, Cx43, and Claudin-11 genes were down-regulated in response to AgNPs exposure on PND28; however, these genes recovered at PND60.
Down-regulation of glutatione S-transferase α 4 (hGSTA4) in the muscle of thermally injured patients is indicative of susceptibility to bacterial infection.
Rahme et al., Boston, United States. In Faseb J, 2012
GSTA4 down-regulation and the concomitant increase in 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in muscle are indicative of susceptibility to infection in individuals with severe thermal injuries.
Dual localization of glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and mitochondria: implications in oxidative stress, toxicity and disease.
Raza, Ukraine. In Febs J, 2011
This review highlights the significance of the mitochondrial GST pool, particularly the mechanism and significance of dual targeting of GSTA4-4 under in vitro and in vivo conditions.
The balance between 4-hydroxynonenal and intrinsic glutathione/glutathione S-transferase A4 system may be critical for the epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation of human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
Shimosegawa et al., Sendai, Japan. In Mol Carcinog, 2011
Data show that mandatory overexpression of hGSTA4 by transient transfection in KYSE30 cells and attenuation of HNE-induced EGFR phosphorylation.
2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate administration into the nostril alleviates murine allergic rhinitis.
Zhao et al., Shanghai, China. In Am J Otolaryngol, 2011
2-APB treatment restrained nasal lavage fluid LTC4, ECP, ovalbumin-specific IgE, and IL-4 and their corresponding mRNAs in the previously mentioned tissues of treated mice in comparison with those of control ones.
Interactions of glutathione transferases with 4-hydroxynonenal.
Atkins et al., United States. In Drug Metab Rev, 2011
Some of the key determining characteristics that impart high alkenal activity reside in the unique C-terminal interactions of the GSTA4-4 enzyme.
Evidence that Gsta4 modifies susceptibility to skin tumor development in mice and humans.
DiGiovanni et al., United States. In J Natl Cancer Inst, 2010
Gsta4/GSTA4 is a novel susceptibility gene for NMSC that affects risk in both mice and humans.
Novel mutations in leukotriene C4 synthase and risk of cardiovascular disease based on genotypes from 50,000 individuals.
Nordestgaard et al., Copenhagen, Denmark. In J Thromb Haemost, 2010
analysis of four novel mutations that change the function of leukotriene C(4) synthase and are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke
Mechanisms of primary cancer prevention by butyrate and other products formed during gut flora-mediated fermentation of dietary fibre.
Glei et al., Jena, Germany. In Mutat Res, 2009
In HT29 tumour cells, e.g., mRNA GSTA4, GSTP1, GSTM2, and GSTT2 were induced.
Genetic variants of glutathione S-transferase as possible risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: a HuGE systematic review and meta-analysis.
El-Serag et al., Houston, United States. In Am J Epidemiol, 2008
Fifteen eligible studies were identified: 14 evaluated GSTM1; 13, GSTT1; three, GSTP1; and one each evaluated GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTA1, GSTA4, GSTO1, and GSTO2, respectively.
Glutathione transferases.
Jowsey et al., Dundee, United Kingdom. In Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 2004
Furthermore, knockout of mouse GSTA4 and GSTZ1 leads to overexpression of transferases in the Alpha, Mu, and Pi classes, an observation suggesting they are part of an adaptive mechanism that responds to endogenous chemical cues such as 4-hydroxynonenal and tyrosine degradation products.
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