The new normal: immunomodulatory agents against sepsis immune suppression.
Providence, United States. In Trends Mol Med, 02 Mar 2014
Recent studies from animal sepsis models and patient samples suggest that cytokines such as interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-15, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as well as co-inhibitory molecule blockade, such as anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 (anti-PD-1) and anti-B and T lymphocyte attenuator (anti-BTLA), may have utility in alleviating the clinical morbidity associated with sustained sepsis.
Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand-dependent dendritic cells in autoimmune inflammation.
Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Autoimmun Rev, 28 Feb 2014
Initial in vitro studies of cytokines in DC development revealed distinct and important roles for the receptor tyrosine kinases, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, also called CSF1) and fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) in the generation of DCs.
Colony stimulating factors (including erythropoietin, granulocyte colony stimulating factor and analogues) for stroke.
Nottingham, United Kingdom. In Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012
CSFs included stem cell factor (SCF), erythropoietin (EPO), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF, CSF-1), thrombopoietin (TPO), or analogues of these.