Basophil modulation by cytokine instruction.
Erlangen, Germany. In Eur J Immunol, Oct 2012
IL-3, GM-CSF, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin activate the STAT5 pathway that promotes proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion but also induces a negative feedback loop via Pim-1 and SOCS proteins.
The evolving role of immunotherapy in prostate cancer.
Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Ann Oncol, Sep 2012
PROSTVAC(®)-VF, a poxvirus-based vaccine engineered to present prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and three immune costimulatory molecules, and GVAX, a vaccine consisting of two prostate cancer cell lines (LnCAP and PC3) and genetically modified to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), both showed promising results in phase II studies, although GVAX failed to meet its primary end point of overall survival when compared with docetaxel in a phase III study.