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Tumor necrosis factor

GITRL, GITR ligand
The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This cytokine is a ligand for receptor TNFRSF18/AITR/GITR. It has been shown to modulate T lymphocyte survival in peripheral tissues. This cytokine is also found to be expressed in endothelial cells, and is thought to be important for interaction between T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: GITR, CD4, CAN, V1a, CD25
Papers on GITRL
GITRL modulates the activities of p38 MAPK and STAT3 to promote Th17 cell differentiation in autoimmune arthritis.
Wang et al., Zhenjiang, China. In Oncotarget, Jan 2016
This study aims to define the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in GITRL-induced Th17 cells in autoimmune arthritis.
GITR engagement in combination with CTLA-4 blockade completely abrogates immunosuppression mediated by human liver tumor-derived regulatory T cells ex vivo.
Sprengers et al., Rotterdam, Netherlands. In Oncoimmunology, Dec 2015
UNASSIGNED: In liver cancer tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Ti-Treg) are potent suppressors of tumor-specific T-cell responses and express high levels of the Treg-associated molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR).
Authentic GITR Signaling Fails To Induce Tumor Regression unless Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Are Depleted.
Kwon et al., South Korea. In J Immunol, Dec 2015
Therefore, we generated a pentamerized form of the GITRL extracellular domain (pGITRL) for ligation to GITR and compared its effect on T cells with that of anti-GITR mAb.
Doxil synergizes with cancer immunotherapies to enhance antitumor responses in syngeneic mouse models.
Hollingsworth et al., Gaithersburg, United States. In Neoplasia, Aug 2015
Based on the previously described roles of doxorubicin in immunogenic cell death, both doxorubicin and liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) were evaluated for their ability to boost the antitumor response of different cancer immunotherapies including checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-L1, PD-1, and CTLA-4 mAbs) and TNF receptor agonists (OX40 and GITR ligand fusion proteins) in syngeneic mouse models.
Macrophage-T cell interactions mediate neuropathic pain through the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor ligand system.
Kishioka et al., Niigata, Japan. In J Biol Chem, Jun 2015
Herein, we investigate the actions of macrophages and T cells through glucocorticoid-induced tumor neurosis factor receptor ligand (GITRL) and its receptor (GITR) in neuropathic pain.
GITRL as a genetic adjuvant enhances enterovirus 71 VP1 DNA vaccine immunogenicity.
Wang et al., Zhenjiang, China. In Immunol Res, May 2015
It has been reported that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) are involved in modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Enhanced CD8 T cell responses through GITR-mediated costimulation resolve chronic viral infection.
Nolte et al., Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Plos Pathog, Mar 2015
Here, we report that constitutive expression of GITR-ligand (GITRL) confers protection against chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, accelerating recovery without increasing pathology.
Cell-specific and context-dependent effects of GITR in cancer, autoimmunity, and infection.
Watts et al., Toronto, Canada. In Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 2014
A breadth of studies have demonstrated the importance of GITR-GITRL in diverse immune processes.
Th17/Treg cells imbalance and GITRL profile in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Wang et al., Zhenjiang, China. In Int J Mol Sci, 2013
In addition, there was an increased level of GITRL, which has been demonstrated to be correlated with the increassement of Th17 cells in the serum and thyroid glands of HT patients; the upregulated serum level of GITRL has a positive correlation with the percentage of Th17 cells in HT patients.
GITR ligand provided by thrombopoietic cells inhibits NK cell antitumor activity.
Kopp et al., Tübingen, Germany. In J Immunol, 2012
Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand (GITRL) confers pseudoexpression to tumor cells by platelets, which results in GITRL expression by megakaryocytes and their platelet progeny.
Enhanced GITR/GITRL interactions augment IL-27 expression and induce IL-10-producing Tr-1 like cells.
Medley et al., Cambridge, United States. In Eur J Immunol, 2012
results demonstrate that enhanced GITR/GITRL interactions have a pleiotropic role on the regulation of T-cell responses
A novel IL-10-independent regulatory role for B cells in suppressing autoimmunity by maintenance of regulatory T cells via GITR ligand.
Dittel et al., Milwaukee, United States. In J Immunol, 2012
B cell expression of GITRL induced Treg proliferation, maintaining their numbers above a threshold required for the prevention of autoimmunity.
Induction of GITRL expression in human keratinocytes by Th2 cytokines and TNF-α: implications for atopic dermatitis.
Leung et al., Denver, United States. In Clin Exp Allergy, 2012
observation suggests a link between cytokine-regulated keratinocyte GITRL expression and its role in inflammatory responses in AD
Pharmacological modulation of GITRL/GITR system: therapeutic perspectives.
Riccardi et al., Perugia, Italy. In Br J Pharmacol, 2012
GITR activation by its ligand (GITRL) influences the activity of effector and regulatory T cells, thus participating in the development of immune response against tumours and infectious agents, as well as in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
IFN-β induces the proliferation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells through upregulation of GITRL on dendritic cells in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Hong et al., Houston, United States. In J Neuroimmunol, 2012
GITRL upregulation induced by IFN-beta on dendritic cells downregulates CTLA-4 on regulatory T (Treg) cells, facilitating proliferation of anergic Treg cells in multiple sclerosis treatment of multiple sclerosis patients.
Co-stimulatory molecules in and beyond co-stimulation - tipping the balance in atherosclerosis?
Zirlik et al., München, Germany. In Thromb Haemost, 2011
In particular, the contribution of CD28/CD80/CD86/CTLA4, ICOS/ICOSL, PD-1/PDL-1/2, TRAF, CD40/CD154, OX40/OX40L, CD137/CD137L, CD70/CD27, GITR/GITRL, and LIGHT to arterial disease is reviewed.
Role of the glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR)-GITR ligand pathway in innate and adaptive immunity.
Azuma, Tokyo, Japan. In Crit Rev Immunol, 2009
Unlike other costimulatory ligands, GITR ligand (GITRL) expression on mature myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) is extremely limited and the GITR-GITRL pathway does not contribute markedly to direct interactions with T cells and antigen-presenting cells in the secondary lymphoid tissues.
Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related (GITR) protein and its ligand in antitumor immunity: functional role and therapeutic modulation.
Salih et al., Tübingen, Germany. In Clin Dev Immunol, 2009
The ability of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member GITR to modulate immune responses has been the subject of multiple studies.
Reverse signaling through GITR ligand enables dexamethasone to activate IDO in allergy.
Puccetti et al., Perugia, Italy. In Nat Med, 2007
Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) on T cells and its natural ligand, GITRL, on accessory cells contribute to the control of immune homeostasis.
The GITR-GITRL interaction: co-stimulation or contrasuppression of regulatory activity?
Stephens et al., Bethesda, United States. In Nat Rev Immunol, 2006
Here we propose a model in which GITR-GITR-ligand interactions co-stimulate both responder T-cell functions and the suppressive functions of T(Reg) cells.
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