Functional analysis determined that DOCK10, ITGA11, DAB2, PDFGRA, VASN, PPAP2B, and LPAR1 are highly expressed in trailblazer cells and required to initiate collective invasion, with DOCK10 essential for metastasis.
Depienne et al., Paris, France. In Eur J Hum Genet, 2014
An autosomal recessive cause was considered possible in two patients: a homozygous 1p31.1 deletion encompassing PTGER3 and a deletion of the entire DOCK10 gene associated with a rare hemizygous missense variant.
These aggressive tumors were also characterized by overexpression of the integrin ligand periostin, and in some biopsies also of osteopontin and of the upstream Rac-regulator dedicator of cytokinesis 10 (DOCK10).