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Cryptochrome 2

CRY2, cryptochrome 2
Blue light receptor mediating blue-light regulated cotyledon expansion and flowering time. Positive regulator of the flowering-time gene CONSTANS. This gene possesses a light-induced CNT2 N-terminal homodimerisation domain.Involved in blue-light induced stomatal opening. Involved in triggering chromatin decondensation. An 80-residue motif (NC80) is sufficient to confer CRY2's physiological function. It is proposed that the PHR domain and the C-terminal tail of the unphosphorylated CRY2 form a "closed" conformation to suppress the NC80 motif in the absence of light. In response to blue light, the C-terminal tail of CRY2 is phosphorylated and electrostatically repelled from the surface of the PHR domain to form an "open" conformation, resulting in derepression of the NC80 motif and signal transduction to trigger photomorphogenic responses. Cry2 phosphorylation and degradation both occur in the nucleus. (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: CRY1, CLOCK, period 2, CAN, Tic
Papers on CRY2
Cryptochromes Interact Directly with PIFs to Control Plant Growth in Limiting Blue Light.
New
Impact
Chory et al., Los Angeles, United States. In Cell, Feb 2016
For growth under a canopy, where blue light is diminished, CRY1 and CRY2 perceive this change and respond by directly contacting two bHLH transcription factors, PIF4 and PIF5.
Deregulated expression of cryptochrome genes in human colorectal cancer.
New
Piepoli et al., San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. In Mol Cancer, Dec 2015
The cryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2) encode circadian proteins important for the functioning of biological oscillators.
Glucose-Raising Polymorphisms in the Human Clock Gene Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) Affect Hepatic Lipid Content.
New
Staiger et al., Tübingen, Germany. In Plos One, Dec 2015
To this end, genotype-phenotype associations of 121 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging ARNTL, ARNTL2, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, PER3, and TIMELESS were assessed in a study population of 1,715 non-diabetic individuals metabolically phenotyped by 5-point oral glucose tolerance tests.
Up-regulation of PER3 Expression Is Correlated with Better Clinical Outcome in Acute Leukemia.
New
Lin et al., Kao-hsiung, Taiwan. In Anticancer Res, Dec 2015
RESULTS: In AML, the expression of period 1 (PER1), period 2 (PER2), period 3 (PER3), cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like 1 (BMAL1), and timeless (TIM) was significantly down-regulated, while that of CK1ε was significantly up-regulated.
Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the process of gonadal sex differentiation in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).
New
Piferrer et al., Barcelona, Spain. In Mol Cell Endocrinol, Dec 2015
A total of 56 differentially expressed genes (DEG) that had not previously been related to sex differentiation in fish were identified within the first three months of age, of which 44 were associated with ovarian differentiation (e.g., cd98, gpd1 and cry2), and 12 with testicular differentiation (e.g., ace, capn8 and nxph1).
Association of osteoporosis with genetic variants of circadian genes in Chinese geriatrics.
New
Hong et al., Shanghai, China. In Osteoporos Int, Dec 2015
RESULTS: Among the 14 genotyped SNPs, we found an association between the CRY2 gene rs2292910 SNP and osteoporosis (r = -0.082, p = 0.045) in the geriatric cohort.
Optogenetic control of signaling in mammalian cells.
Review
New
Radziwill et al., Freiburg, Germany. In Biotechnol J, Feb 2015
These tools are based on photoreceptors such as phytochrome B (PhyB), cryptochrome 2, or light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domains that reversibly bind to specific interaction partners in a light-dependent manner.
Tools for controlling protein interactions using light.
Review
Kennedy et al., Aurora, United States. In Curr Protoc Cell Biol, 2013
We provide detailed protocols for experiments using two dimerization systems we previously developed, CRY2/CIB and UVR8/UVR8, for use in controlling transcription, protein localization, and protein secretion using light.
Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states.
Impact
Zhang et al., Cambridge, United States. In Nature, 2013
Here we describe the development of light-inducible transcriptional effectors (LITEs), an optogenetic two-hybrid system integrating the customizable TALE DNA-binding domain with the light-sensitive cryptochrome 2 protein and its interacting partner CIB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana.
SCF(FBXL3) ubiquitin ligase targets cryptochromes at their cofactor pocket.
Impact
Zheng et al., Seattle, United States. In Nature, 2013
Here we report crystal structures of mammalian CRY2 in its apo, FAD-bound and FBXL3-SKP1-complexed forms.
Optogenetic protein clustering and signaling activation in mammalian cells.
Impact
Schaffer et al., Berkeley, United States. In Nat Methods, 2013
We report an optogenetic method based on Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light.
FBXL21 regulates oscillation of the circadian clock through ubiquitination and stabilization of cryptochromes.
Impact
Fukada et al., Tokyo, Japan. In Cell, 2013
In the mammalian circadian clockwork, CRY1 and CRY2 repressor proteins are regulated by posttranslational modifications for temporally coordinated transcription of clock genes.
AMPK at the crossroads of circadian clocks and metabolism.
Review
Lamia et al., Los Angeles, United States. In Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2013
Mammalian clocks are primarily based on a transcription and translation feedback loop in which a heterodimeric complex of the transcription factors CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) and BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) activates the expression of its own repressors, the period (PER1-3) and cryptochrome (CRY1 and CRY2) proteins.
Clock gene variants in mood and anxiety disorders.
Review
Partonen, Helsinki, Finland. In J Neural Transm, 2012
The findings that have gained support indicate that genetic variants of RORA (rs2028122) and CRY1 (rs2287161) associate with depressive disorder, those of RORB (rs7022435, rs3750420, rs1157358, rs3903529) and NR1D1 (rs2314339) with bipolar disorder, and those of NPAS2 (rs11541353) and CRY2 (rs10838524) with seasonal affective disorder or winter depression.
A study of the blue-light-dependent phosphorylation, degradation, and photobody formation of Arabidopsis CRY2.
GeneRIF
Lin et al., Beijing, China. In Mol Plant, 2012
The photoexcited cryptochromes form oligomers, preceding other biochemical changes of CRY2, facilitate photobody formation, signal amplification, and propagation, as well as desensitization by degradation.
Phototropins but not cryptochromes mediate the blue light-specific promotion of stomatal conductance, while both enhance photosynthesis and transpiration under full sunlight.
GeneRIF
Casal et al., Mendoza, Argentina. In Plant Physiol, 2012
Leaf epidermal peels of Arabidopsis mutants lacking cryptochromes 1 and 2 exposed to a background of red light show severely impaired stomatal opening responses to blue light.
Altered clock gene expression and vascular smooth muscle diurnal contractile variations in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.
GeneRIF
Gong et al., Lexington, United States. In Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2012
24-h mRNA rhythms of the following genes were suppressed in db/db mice compared with control mice: the clock genes period homolog 1/2 (Per1/2) and cryptochrome 1/2 (Cry1/2).
Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor.
Impact
GeneRIF
Evans et al., Los Angeles, United States. In Nature, 2012
cryptochromes 1 and 2 associate with a glucocorticoid response element in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 promoter in a hormone-dependent manner
Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) functions by the photoactivation mechanism distinct from the tryptophan (trp) triad-dependent photoreduction.
GeneRIF
Lin et al., Changsha, China. In Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012
cryptochromes mediate blue-light responses via a photochemistry distinct from trp-triad-dependent photoreduction
The action mechanisms of plant cryptochromes.
Review
Lin et al., Los Angeles, United States. In Trends Plant Sci, 2011
Two modes of CRY signal transduction have recently been discovered: the cryptochrome-interacting basic-helix-loop-helix 1 (CIB)-dependent CRY2 regulation of transcription; and the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA1/CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (SPA1/COP1)-dependent cryptochrome regulation of proteolysis.
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