TNF-alpha inhibitors for ankylosing spondylitis.
Ottawa, Canada. In Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2014
Most studies permitted concomitant therapy of stable doses of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or corticosteroids, but allowances varied across studies.Compared with placebo, there was high quality evidence that patients on an anti-TNF agent were three to four times more likely to achieve an ASAS40 response (assessing spinal pain, function, and inflammation, as measured by the mean of intensity and duration of morning stiffness, and patient global assessment) by six months (adalimumab: risk ratio (RR) 3.53, 95% credible interval (Crl) 2.49 to 4.91; etanercept: RR 3.31, 95% Crl 2.38 to 4.53; golimumab: RR 2.90, 95% Crl 1.90 to 4.23; infliximab: RR 4.07, 95% Crl 2.80 to 5.74, with a 25% to 40% absolute difference between treatment and placebo groups.
Regulation of alternative sigma factor use.
Umeå, Sweden. In Annu Rev Microbiol, 2010
The latter include the nucleotide alarmone ppGpp and small proteins (DksA, Rsd, and Crl), which directly target the transcriptional machinery to mediate their effects.