Gallic Acid Exhibits Risks of Inducing Muscular Hemorrhagic Liposis and Cerebral Hemorrhage-Its Action Mechanism and Preventive Strategy.
Taiwan. In Phytother Res, 17 Dec 2014
Results revealed that the action mechanism of GA involved (i) inducing hypoxia with upregulated gene hif-1α and downregulated ratio vegf-r2/vegf-a, leading to dys-vascularization and myopathy; (ii) impairing cytochrome c oxidase; (iii) stimulating creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase release; (iv) eliciting carnitine accumulation and liposis via downregulating gene CPT1; (v) suppressing superoxide dismutase and stimulating NO, H2 O2 , and malondialdehyde; and (vi) depleting erythrocytic and tissue GSH, resulting in hemorrhage.
Irisin has no effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
Jinan, China. In Endocrine, 19 Nov 2014
We examined the effects of various concentrations of irisin on lipolysis (according to Oil Red O staining, free fatty acid release, and glycerol release), protein expression of HSL and ATGL, and mRNA expression of other lipid-related genes (UCP-1, PPARγ, FABP-4, HSL, ATGL, PPARα, and CPT-1) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as mRNA levels of genes involved in the synthesis (SREBP-1C and FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα and CPT-1) of fatty acids in HepG2 hepatocytes under physiological or hyperglycemic conditions.
Hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and the control of food intake.
Jupiter, United States. In Physiol Behav, Nov 2013
Malonyl-CoA inhibits the acyltransferase activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and CPT-1 was considered as a downstream effector in hypothalamic malonyl-CoA effect on feeding.
Companion Animals Symposium: nutrigenomics: using gene expression and molecular biology data to understand pet obesity.
Urbana, United States. In J Anim Sci, Jun 2013
Diets including prebiotics, green tea extract, or increased concentrations of protein have been shown to modify the expression of several genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose [e.g., uncoupling protein-2, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, PPARα, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and glucose transporter 4] and skeletal muscle (e.g., PPARα and LPL) tissues.
Molecular mechanisms of hypolipidemic effects of curcumin.
Boston, United States. In Biofactors, 2013
At the molecular level, mounting experimental evidence suggests that curcumin may act chemically as scavenger of free radicals and/or influences signal transduction (e.g., Akt, AMPK) and modulates the activity of specific transcription factors (e.g., FOXO1/3a, NRF2, SREBP1/2, CREB, CREBH, PPARγ, and LXRα) that regulate the expression of genes involved in free radicals scavenging (e.g., catalase, MnSOD, and heme oxygenase-1) and lipid homeostasis (e.g., aP2/FABP4, CD36, HMG-CoA reductase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-1)).
Hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism mediates the orexigenic action of ghrelin.
A Coruña, Spain. In Cell Metab, 2008
Here, we use pharmacological and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the physiological orexigenic response to ghrelin involves specific inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis induced by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) resulting in decreased hypothalamic levels of malonyl-CoA and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity.