Ubiquinone, also known as coenzyme Q, or Q, is a critical component of the electron transport pathways of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes (Jonassen and Clarke, 2000 [PubMed 10777520]). This lipid consists of a hydrophobic isoprenoid tail and a quinone head group. The tail varies in length depending on the organism, but its purpose is to anchor coenzyme Q to the membrane. The quinone head group is responsible for the activity of coenzyme Q in the respiratory chain. The S. cerevisiae COQ3 gene encodes an O-methyltransferase required for 2 steps in the biosynthetic pathway of coenzyme Q. This enzyme methylates an early coenzyme Q intermediate, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-polyprenylbenzoic acid, as well as the final intermediate in the pathway, converting demethyl-ubiquinone to coenzyme Q. The COQ3 gene product is also capable of methylating the distinct prokaryotic early intermediate 2-hydroxy-6-polyprenyl phenol.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008] (from
Clarke et al., Los Angeles, United States. In Biochim Biophys Acta, 2009
The coq4-1 yeast mutant retains significant Coq3p O-methyltransferase activity, and mitochondria isolated from coq4-1 and coq4-2 (E(121)K) yeast point mutants contain normal steady state levels of Coq polypeptides, unlike the decreased levels of Coq polypeptides generally found in strains harboring coq gene deletions.
Clarke et al., Los Angeles, United States. In J Biol Chem, 2004
Two other polypeptides required for Q biosynthesis, Coq3p and Coq4p, are detected in the wild type parent and in the coq5-2 and coq5-5 mutants, but are not detected in the coq5-null mutant, or in the coq5-4 or coq5-3 mutants.