Search for Biomarkers of Intracranial Aneurysms: A Systematic Review.
Miami, United States. In World Neurosurg, Nov 2015
IAs are associated with an increase in levels of immunologic markers, particularly complement C3 and C9, immunoglobulins IgG and IgM, M1/M2 macrophages, monocytes, and B and T lymphocytes; increase in blood and CSF levels of adhesion molecules; selectins found on vascular endothelium, platelets, and leukocytes; doubled ratios of elastase-to-alpha-1-antitrypsin as controls; elevated levels of neurofilament heavy chain SM135 and S-100 post rupture; and locus 19q13 with many candidate genes.
Future perspectives in target-specific immunotherapies of myasthenia gravis.
Philadelphia, United States. In Ther Adv Neurol Disord, Nov 2015
Novel biological agents currently on the market, directed against the following molecular pathways, are relevant and specific therapeutic targets that can be tested in MG: (a) T cell intracellular signaling molecules, such as anti-CD52, anti-interleukin (IL) 2 receptors, anti- costimulatory molecules, and anti-Janus tyrosine kinases (JAK1, JAK3) that block the intracellular cascade associated with T-cell activation; (b) B cells and their trophic factors, directed against key B-cell molecules; (c) complement C3 or C5, intercepting the destructive effect of complement-fixing antibodies; (d) cytokines and cytokine receptors, such as those targeting IL-6 which promotes antibody production and IL-17, or the p40 subunit of IL-12/1L-23 that affect regulatory T cells; and (e) T and B cell transmigration molecules associated with lymphocyte egress from the lymphoid organs.
A review of the immune molecules in the sea cucumber.
Dalian, China. In Fish Shellfish Immunol, May 2015
These genes include lectins, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, enzymes, clotting protein, pattern recognition proteins, Toll receptors, complement C3 and other humoral factors that might participate in the innate immune system of sea cucumbers.