Genetics in dystonia.
Lübeck, Germany. In Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 2014
However, three of these putative new genes still await independent confirmation (TUBB4/DYT4; CIZ1/DYT23; ANO3/DYT24) and only 11 'DYT' genes have been unequivocally demonstrated to cause different forms of dystonia.
Genetics in dystonia: an update.
New York City, United States. In Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep, 2013
The past year has been extremely successful with regard to the genetics of dystonia, with the identification of four new dystonia genes (CIZ1, ANO3, GNAL, and TUBB4A).
In Continuum (minneap Minn), 2013
Isolated dystonia (with dystonic tremor) can be caused by mutations in TOR1A (DYT1), TUBB4 (DYT4), THAP1 (DYT6), PRKRA (DYT16), CIZ1 (DYT23), ANO3 (DYT24), and GNAL (DYT25).
The genetics of dystonia: new twists in an old tale.
London, United Kingdom. In Brain, 2013
In just over a year, four new genes have been shown to cause primary dystonia (CIZ1, ANO3, TUBB4A and GNAL), PRRT2 has been identified as the cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dystonia and other genes, such as SLC30A10 and ATP1A3, have been linked to more complicated forms of dystonia or new phenotypes.