The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Their Antagonists.
London, United Kingdom. In Vitam Horm, 2014
One mechanism for enabling tight spatiotemporal control of their activities is through a number of antagonist proteins, including Noggin, Follistatin, Chordin, Twisted gastrulation (TSG), and the seven members of the Cerberus and Dan family.
Emerging small molecule drugs.
Lille, France. In Handb Exp Pharmacol, 2014
This chapter will highlight the emerging small molecules currently developed and tested in clinical trials to pharmacologically modulate HDL-C and functionality including new CETP inhibitors (anacetrapib, evacetrapib), novel PPAR agonists (K-877, CER-002, DSP-8658, INT131 and GFT505), LXR agonists (ATI-111, LXR-623, XL-652) and RVX-208.
Sphingolipids: key regulators of apoptosis and pivotal players in cancer drug resistance.
Milano, Italy. In Int J Mol Sci, 2013
In particular, in order to increase survival, cancer cells: (a) counteract the accumulation of ceramide that is endowed with pro-apoptotic potential and is induced by many drugs; (b) increase the synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate and glucosylceramide that are pro-survivals signals; (c) modify the synthesis and the metabolism of complex glycosphingolipids, particularly increasing the levels of modified species of gangliosides such as 9-O acetylated GD3 (αNeu5Ac(2-8)αNeu5Ac(2-3)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) or N-glycolyl GM3 (αNeu5Ac (2-3)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) and de-N-acetyl GM3 (NeuNH(2)βGal(1-4)βGlc(1-1)Cer) endowed with anti-apoptotic roles and of globoside Gb3 related to a higher expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1.