Neuroimmunotherapies Targeting T Cells: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutic Applications.
Mainz, Germany. In Neurotherapeutics, Dec 2015
While the concept of "T-cell-specific therapy" implies specificity and selectivity, currently approved approaches come from a general shaping of the immune system towards anti-inflammatory immune responses by non-T-cell-selective immune suppression or immune modulation (e.g., interferons-immune modulation approach) to a depletion of immune cell populations involving T cells (e.g., anti-CD52, alemtuzumab-immune selective depletion approach), or a selective inhibition of distinct molecular pathways in order to sequester leucocytes (e.g., natalizumab-leukocyte sequestration approach).
Future perspectives in target-specific immunotherapies of myasthenia gravis.
Philadelphia, United States. In Ther Adv Neurol Disord, Nov 2015
Novel biological agents currently on the market, directed against the following molecular pathways, are relevant and specific therapeutic targets that can be tested in MG: (a) T cell intracellular signaling molecules, such as anti-CD52, anti-interleukin (IL) 2 receptors, anti- costimulatory molecules, and anti-Janus tyrosine kinases (JAK1, JAK3) that block the intracellular cascade associated with T-cell activation; (b) B cells and their trophic factors, directed against key B-cell molecules; (c) complement C3 or C5, intercepting the destructive effect of complement-fixing antibodies; (d) cytokines and cytokine receptors, such as those targeting IL-6 which promotes antibody production and IL-17, or the p40 subunit of IL-12/1L-23 that affect regulatory T cells; and (e) T and B cell transmigration molecules associated with lymphocyte egress from the lymphoid organs.
Targeting immune dysregulation in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Bethesda, United States. In Jama, 2011
After treatment with a clinical protocol using alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 antibody, her blood cell counts returned to normal and she has remained in complete remission for more than 2 years of follow-up.