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Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1

C-9, ddI, AKR1C1, complement component C9
This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction of progesterone to the inactive form 20-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: HAD, CAN, ACID, AKR1C2, AKR1C3
Papers on C-9
Novel oxime-bearing coumarin derivatives act as potent Nrf2/ARE activators in vitro and in mouse model.
New
Tzeng et al., Kao-hsiung, Taiwan. In Eur J Med Chem, Jan 2016
In the animal experiment, Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective proteins, such as aldo-keto reductase 1 subunit C-1 (AKR1C1), glutathione reductase (GR), and heme oxygenase (HO-1), were obviously elevated in the liver of 17a-treated mice than that of control.
Stromal markers AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 are prognostic factors in primary human breast cancer.
New
Bauer et al., Kiel, Germany. In Int J Clin Oncol, Dec 2015
We evaluated two aldo-keto reductases, AKR1C1 and AKR1C2, in stromal fibroblasts and carcinoma cells as prognostic factors in primary human breast cancer.
Hormone-related pathways and risk of breast cancer subtypes in African American women.
New
Palmer et al., Boston, United States. In Breast Cancer Res Treat, Nov 2015
The most significantly associated genes were GHRH, CALM2, CETP, and AKR1C1 for overall breast cancer (gene-based nominal p ≤ 0.01); NR0B1, IGF2R, CALM2, CYP1B1, and GRB2 for ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.02); and PGR, MAPK3, MAP3K1, and LHCGR for ER- disease (p ≤ 0.02).
Serum Glycoprotein Biomarker Discovery and Qualification Pipeline Reveals Novel Diagnostic Biomarker Candidates for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.
New
Hill et al., Brisbane, Australia. In Mol Cell Proteomics, Nov 2015
The top candidate for distinguishing healthy from BE patients' group was Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin (NPL)-reactive Apolipoprotein B-100 (p value = 0.0231; AUROC = 0.71); BE versus EAC, Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL)-reactive complement component C9 (p value = 0.0001; AUROC = 0.85); healthy versus EAC, Erythroagglutinin Phaseolus vulgaris (EPHA)-reactive gelsolin (p value = 0.0014; AUROC = 0.80).
Utilization of digital differential display to identify differentially expressed genes related to rumen development.
Review
New
Roh et al., Nayoro, Japan. In Anim Sci J, Oct 2015
Among the 11 genes, only 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1-like (AKR1C1), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) showed significant changes in the levels of gene expression in the rumen between the pre- and post-weaning of calves.
Promiscuity and diversity in 3-ketosteroid reductases.
Review
New
Jin et al., Philadelphia, United States. In J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, Jul 2015
The enzymes involved in 3-ketosteroid reduction are AKR1C1-AKR1C4.
The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs): Overview.
Review
New
Penning, Philadelphia, United States. In Chem Biol Interact, Jul 2015
There are 15 human AKRs of these AKR1B1, AKR1C1-1C3, AKR1D1, and AKR1B10 have been implicated in diabetic complications, steroid hormone dependent malignancies, bile acid deficiency and defects in retinoic acid signaling, respectively.
Updated survey of the steroid-converting enzymes in human adipose tissues.
Review
New
Luu-The et al., Québec, Canada. In J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, Mar 2015
Our work on 20α-HSD (AKR1C1), 3α-HSD type 3 (AKR1C2) and 17β-HSD type 5 (AKR1C3) allowed us to clarify the relevance of these enzymes for some aspects of adipose tissue function.
Human aldo-keto reductases and the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Review
Penning, Philadelphia, United States. In Chem Res Toxicol, 2014
The human recombinant AKR1A1 and AKR1C1-AKR1C4 enzymes all catalyze the oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols to PAH o-quinones.
Insight into the Protein Composition of Immunoglobulin Light Chain Deposits of Eyelid, Orbital and Conjunctival Amyloidosis.
Enghild et al., Århus, Denmark. In J Proteomics Bioinform, 2013
Five proteins, apolipoprotein A-I, carboxypeptidase B2 (TAFI), complement component C9, fibulin-1 and plasminogen were found solely across all amyloid but not in the control tissue.
Caveolin-1 and dynamin-2 are essential for removal of the complement C5b-9 complex via endocytosis.
GeneRIF
Fishelson et al., Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. In J Biol Chem, 2012
Caveolin-1 and dynamin-2 are essential for removal of the complement C5b-9 complex via endocytosis.
Transactivation activity of human papillomavirus type 16 E6*I on aldo-keto reductase genes enhances chemoresistance in cervical cancer cells.
GeneRIF
Ponglikitmongkol et al., Bangkok, Thailand. In J Gen Virol, 2012
It was concluded that the truncated E6 protein of human papillomavirus 16, known as E6*I, has a novel function in upregulating expression of human AKR1C.
Interleukin 1β regulates progesterone metabolism in human cervical fibroblasts.
GeneRIF
Myers et al., Oklahoma City, United States. In Reprod Sci, 2012
Data suggest that interleukin-1beta facilitates progesterone metabolism in cervical fibroblasts by regulating expression of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2.
C9-R95X polymorphism in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
GeneRIF
Terasaki et al., Nagoya, Japan. In Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2012
the haploinsufficiency of C9, a terminal complement complex component, engenders reduced intraocular secretion of VEGF and decreased risk for CNV development.
Fucosylated glycoproteomic approach to identify a complement component 9 associated with squamous cell lung cancer (SQLC).
GeneRIF
Cho et al., Taegu, South Korea. In J Proteomics, 2011
C9 and fucosylated form could serve as a useful marker for SQLC.
Convergent combination therapy can select viable multidrug-resistant HIV-1 in vitro.
Impact
Kemp et al., Kent, United States. In Nature, 1993
But selection pressure by drugs such as AZT (3'-azido-3'deoxythymidine, zidovudine), ddI (2',3'-dideoxyinosine) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) causes outgrowth of resistant variants due to non-lethal mutations in the enzyme.
Use of evolutionary limitations of HIV-1 multidrug resistance to optimize therapy.
Impact
D'Aquila et al., Boston, United States. In Nature, 1993
In contrast, therapy relying on inhibitors of reverse transcriptase by nucleosides like zidovudine (AZT) or dideoxyinosine (ddI), and by non-nucleosides like pyridinones or nevirapine, may exert different selection pressures on this enzyme.
Phosphorylcholine acts as a Ca2+-dependent receptor molecule for lymphocyte perforin.
Impact
Heusser et al., Lausanne, Switzerland. In Nature, 1989
Purified perforin is cytolytic in the presence of Ca2+ and shows ultrastructural, immunological and amino-acid sequence similarities to complement component C9.
Structure and function of human perforin.
Impact
Podack et al., Miami, United States. In Nature, 1988
Perforin (P1) is a cytolytic protein with similarity to complement component C9.
Monoclonal antibodies demonstrate protection of polymorphonuclear leukocytes against complement attack.
Impact
Morgan et al., In Nature, 1985
Here we report the use of a monoclonal antibody to the terminal complement component C9, quantified by 125I and visualized by fluorescein, to demonstrate a protection mechanism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) attacked by complement, involving removal of the attack complex by vesiculation.
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