HIV suppression by host restriction factors and viral immune evasion.
New Haven, United States. In Curr Opin Struct Biol, Apr 2015
Here we review the recent developments towards establishing the structural and biochemical bases of HIV inhibition by, and viral countermeasures of, the restriction factors TRIM5, MxB, APOBEC3, SAMHD1, and BST2/tetherin.
Restriction Factors in HIV-1 Disease Progression.
Trois-Rivières, Canada. In Curr Hiv Res, 2014
TRIM5α, Mx2/MxB, TRIM22/Staf50, SAMHD1, p21/CDKN1, tetherin/BST2/CD137, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F have all been proposed to inhibit HIV-1, often with gene variant- or cellular context-specificity.
Human MX2 is an interferon-induced post-entry inhibitor of HIV-1 infection.
London, United Kingdom. In Nature, 2013
For the pathogenic retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), these include widely expressed restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 proteins, TRIM5-α, BST2 (refs 4, 5) and SAMHD1 (refs 6, 7), as well as additional factors that are stimulated by type 1 interferon (IFN).
Tetherin: holding on and letting go.
Ulm, Germany. In Cell, 2010
This Essay discusses the host restriction factor tetherin, which blocks the release of enveloped viruses like HIV-1, and the factors evolved by primate lentiviruses, such as Vpu and Nef, that antagonize tetherin's action.
Tetherin is as tetherin does.
Atlanta, United States. In Cell, 2009
Tetherin is a cellular restriction factor that inhibits the release of HIV and other enveloped viruses from host cells.