Rectal and colon cancer: Not just a different anatomic site.
Groningen, Netherlands. In Cancer Treat Rev, 30 Sep 2015
Moreover, they harbor a different composition of drug targets, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), which is preferentially mutated in proximal colon cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is prevalently amplified or overexpressed in distal colorectal cancers.
Management of regorafenib-related toxicities: a review.
New York City, United States. In Therap Adv Gastroenterol, 30 Sep 2015
Regorafenib (Stivarga, BAY 73-4506; Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany) is an oral multikinase inhibitor that targets the angiogenic tumor microenvironment and oncogenic kinases including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), VEGFR1, VEGFR3, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), RAF, KIT, RET and BRAF.
Perspective of Targeting Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Melanoma.
Cincinnati, United States. In J Cancer, Dec 2014
Although a great deal of progress has been made in the past decade, including the development of immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapy using BRAF, MEK or KIT inhibitors, treatment for unresectable stage III, stage IV, and recurrent melanoma is still challenging with limited response rate, severe side effects and poor prognosis, highlighting an urgent need for discovering and designing more effective approaches to conquer melanoma.
Novel Approaches to Treatment of Advanced Melanoma: A Review on Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy.
Bydgoszcz, Poland. In Biomed Res Int, Dec 2014
From 2011 until now, the U.S. FDA has approved seven novel agents, such as BRAF-inhibitors (vemurafenib 2011, dabrafenib 2013), MEK-inhibitors (trametinib 2013), anti-PD1 antibodies (nivolumab 2014, pembrolizumab 2014), anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab 2011), or peginterferon-alfa-2b (2011) intended to be used in most advanced cases of melanoma.
Toronto, Canada. In J Immunother Cancer, Dec 2014
Pembrolizumab was the first anti-PD-1 antibody to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with disease progression following ipilimumab, and if BRAF (V600) mutation positive, a BRAF inhibitor.