Genetics and Genetic Biomarkers in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer.
Ann Arbor, United States. In Gastroenterology, 24 Aug 2015
Commonly observed alterations across sporadic CRCs have allowed classification into a: (1) hypermutated group that includes defective DNA mismatch repair with microsatellite instability (MSI) and POLE mutations in ∼15%, containing multiple frameshifted genes and BRAF(V600E); (2) non-hypermutated group with multiple somatic copy number alterations and aneuploidy in ∼85%, containing oncogenic activation of KRAS and PIK3CA and mutation and loss of heterozygosity of tumor suppressor genes such as APC and TP53; (3) CpG Island Methylator Phenotype CRCs in ∼20% that overlap greatly with MSI CRCs and some non-hypermutated CRCs; and (4) elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST) in ∼60% that associates with metastatic behavior in both hypermutated and non-hypermutated groups.
Genomic Classification of Cutaneous Melanoma.
In Cell, 18 Jul 2015
We establish a framework for genomic classification into one of four subtypes based on the pattern of the most prevalent significantly mutated genes: mutant BRAF, mutant RAS, mutant NF1, and Triple-WT (wild-type).
Gaining momentum: New options and opportunities for the treatment of advanced melanoma.
Lausanne, Switzerland. In Cancer Treat Rev, 04 Jul 2015
A greater understanding of the epidemiology and biology of disease has underpinned the development of newer therapies, including six agents that have been approved in the EU, US and/or Japan: a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab), two programmed cell death-1 receptor inhibitors (nivolumab and pembrolizumab), two BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) and a MEK inhibitor (trametinib).
Novel Approaches to Treatment of Advanced Melanoma: A Review on Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy.
Bydgoszcz, Poland. In Biomed Res Int, Dec 2014
From 2011 until now, the U.S. FDA has approved seven novel agents, such as BRAF-inhibitors (vemurafenib 2011, dabrafenib 2013), MEK-inhibitors (trametinib 2013), anti-PD1 antibodies (nivolumab 2014, pembrolizumab 2014), anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab 2011), or peginterferon-alfa-2b (2011) intended to be used in most advanced cases of melanoma.
[Modern methods of molecular targeted therapy for disseminated melanoma].
In Vopr Onkol, Dec 2014
New classes of pharmaceuticals appeared in daily clinical practice: inhibitors of MAPK pathway components (BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, MEK--inhibitors trametinib and cobimetinib) and immune checkpoint inhibitors that modulate immunologic synapse activity.
Perspective of Targeting Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Melanoma.
Cincinnati, United States. In J Cancer, Dec 2014
Although a great deal of progress has been made in the past decade, including the development of immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapy using BRAF, MEK or KIT inhibitors, treatment for unresectable stage III, stage IV, and recurrent melanoma is still challenging with limited response rate, severe side effects and poor prognosis, highlighting an urgent need for discovering and designing more effective approaches to conquer melanoma.